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Study shows bacteria are common in snow

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Study shows bacteria are common in snow PostFri Feb 29, 2008 2:01 am  Reply with quote  

This has been the best week ever for me. Two stories so far, one with the Fed Chief raising concerns about hyperinflation coming from rising energy prices. That explained what I've said all summer, The USAF kept the warm ridge across the Central US to keep hurricanes out of the Gulf. Now this study. The rain inducing spray. Endothermic Bacteria attached to plastic strings...

For all the people that have bared false witness against me over the years, Espically when I said I was "God's"Meteorologist.. I leave you with this "I say to God,"My Rock, why do you forget me? Why must I go about mourning with the enemy oppressing me?" It shatters my bones, when my adversaries reproach me. They say to me daily:"Where is your God?"."(Psalms 42-43 9-11)

Study shows bacteria are common in snow By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID, AP Science Writer
2 hours, 40 minutes ago

WASHINGTON - Those beautiful snowflakes drifting out of the sky may have a surprise inside — bacteria. Most snow and rain forms in chilly conditions high in the sky and atmospheric scientists have long known that, under most conditions, the moisture needs something to cling to in order to condense.


Now, a new study shows a surprisingly large share of those so-called nucleators turn out to be bacteria that can affect plants.

"Bacteria are by far the most active ice nuclei in nature," said Brent C. Christner, an assistant professor of biological sciences at Louisiana State University.

Christner and colleagues sampled snow from Antarctica, France, Montana and the Yukon and they report their findings in Friday's edition of the journal Science.

In some samples as much as 85 percent of the nuclei were bacteria, Christner said in a telephone interview. The bacteria were most common in France, followed by Montana and the Yukon, and was even present to a lesser degree in Antarctica.

The most common bacteria found was Pseudomonas syringae, which can cause disease in several types of plants including tomatoes and beans.

The study found it in 20 samples of snow from around the world and subsequent research has also found it in summer rainfall in Louisiana.

The focus on Pseudomonas in the past has been to try and eliminate it, Christner said, but now that it turns out to be a major factor in encouraging snow and rain, he wonders if that is a good idea. Would elimination of this bacteria result in less rain or snow, or would it be replaced by other nuclei such as soot and dust?

"The question is, are they a good guy or a bad guy," he said, "and I don't have the answer to that."

What is clear is that Pseudomonas is effective at getting moisture in a cloud to condense, he pointed out. Killed bacteria are even used as an additive in snow making at ski resorts.

Which raises the question, Christner said, of whether planting crops known to be infected by Pseudomonas in areas experiencing drought might help increase precipitation there by adding more nuclei to the atmosphere.

It has been known that microbes and insects and algae blow around in the atmosphere, Christner added, "but the atmosphere has not been recognized as a place where things are active. That has been changing in the last decade. In a cloud you've got water, organic carbon," everything necessary to support a microorganism.

Virginia K. Walker, a biologist at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, said other researchers have found bacteria serving as snow nuclei, but had not identified it as Pseudomonas.

"It's one of those great bacteria ... you can find them anywhere," said Walker, who was not part of the research team. "They are really interesting."

Charles Knight, a cloud physics expert at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., wasn't surprised by the finding, however.

At relatively warm temperatures of just a few degrees below freezing, bacteria are "remarkably effective" at attracting ice formation, said Knight, who also was not part of the research group.

The study was supported by a Louisiana State University research grant.

In a second paper published online by Science, researchers report that the amount of dust blown into the tropical Pacific over the last half-million years has varied widely between warm and cold periods.

Dust also has important impacts on weather and climate ranging from serving as nuclei for rain to blocking some incoming radiation from the sun, and it also delivers minerals like iron that increase growth of plankton in ocean areas.

Cores of seafloor sediment were taken from locations across the tropical Pacific covering a period of 500,000 years.

Researchers led by Gisela Winckler of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University found that dust deposited in the ocean peaked during cold periods and was less during warm periods. Using isotopes, the scientists traced the dust on the western side to Asia and that on the eastern side to South America.

They say the reasons for the change are complex but in general it tends to be windier in cold periods meaning more dust gets blown around.

They found that cold peaks occurred about every 100,000 years, with the last one at 20,000 years ago.

The research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
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More PostFri Feb 29, 2008 2:10 am  Reply with quote

They will be encouraged by the discovery of bacteria in a core drilled 3,600 meters (11,700 feet) into the ice immediately above the lake. It will also strengthen the view of those who believe that any mission to the buried waters of Vostok would act as a first step to finding extreme lifeforms elsewhere in our Solar System.

“To the last, I grapple with thee; From Hell's heart, I stab at thee; For hate's sake, I spit my last breath at thee”
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PostFri Feb 29, 2008 3:50 pm  Reply with quote,2933,299857,00.html
Saturday, October 06, 2007

Report: Scientists Create New Life Form in Lab
Saturday , October 06, 2007

A scientist who built a synthetic chromosome from laboratory chemicals is expected to announce the creation of a new species, the first new artificial life form on Earth, British newspaper The Guardian reported Sunday.

The new species is a form of bacteria, and the announcement, which could come as early as Monday, is expected to provoke a substantial ethical debate about the manufacturing of life forms in a test tube, as well the dangers posed by introducing a new species, The Guardian reported.

Click here to read the full report in The Guardian.

Craig Venter, the genetics specialist who spearheaded the landmark breakthrough and heads the J. Craig Venter Institute in Rockville, Md., where the research was conducted, said the new species could lead to new energy sources and new methods for combatting global warming.

"We are going from reading our genetic code to the ability to write it," Venter told The Guardian. "That gives us the hypothetical ability to do things never contemplated before," he said.

For example, the bacteria could be capable of absorbing carbon monoxide, a possible solution to global warming, Venter said.

According to The Guardian, a team of 20 elite scientists assembled by Venter at his institute has already constructed a synthetic chromosome from lab chemicals—also a landmark acheivement. The man-made chromosome will be transplanted into an existing bacterial cell and is expected to take control of the cell. When the synthetic DNA takes over, the cell will be a new species.

While critics acknowledge that artificially manufactured life forms could lead to such positive developments as new drugs or treatments for disease, the potential dangers could be equally unlimited.

"It could be a contribution to humanity such as new drugs or a huge threat to humanity such as bio-weapons," Pat Mooney, director of ETC Group, a Canadian bioethics organization, told The Guardian.

Venter has provoked additional controversy by applying for a patent for the synthetic bacterium, The Guardian reported.

Full Article in Guardian
... we are in process of developing a whole series of techniques which will enable the controlling oligarchy who have always existed and presumably will always exist to get people to love their servitude. Aldous Huxley
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Genetics PostSat Mar 01, 2008 3:25 am  Reply with quote  

I'm 99.997% sure about this post.

Now, the greatest problem with killing 99.9 per cent of bacteria in a given area is that you haven’t killed 100 per cent. That 0.1 per cent left behind is now free to exploit the space and resources previously taken by its less hardy competition, to spread, to multiply, and to mutate. So, while by Lysoling everything you see you may have temporarily spared your ugly, fat-fingered thumb-sucking child the discomfort of a brief sickness caused by ingesting fecal coliform bacteria, you have turned that area into a breeding ground of sorts for bad-ass bacteria.

This is evolution in action.

Bacteria can divide every twenty to thirty minutes. This gives bacteria remarkable powers of multiplication. Consider a single bacteria. After 24 hours there would be 2^48 or 2.81 x 10^14 bacteria.

You do the math... Wipe your house with Lysol, and only .1 percent of bacteria remain. Where are you in 48 hours? This is exactly why we have drug resistant and multi-drug resistant strains of disease running rampant in the world. The same principle applies to antibiotics. People get a 10 day prescription and feel better after 7, so they stop taking them....

Over the next decade all of our antibiotics will be useless. This makes the search for alternatives imperative.
“To the last, I grapple with thee; From Hell's heart, I stab at thee; For hate's sake, I spit my last breath at thee”
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Evolution in Action PostSat Mar 01, 2008 3:35 am  Reply with quote

Why does MRSA exist?

It's all about survival of the fittest - the basic principle of evolution, and bacteria have been around a lot longer than us, so they're pretty good at it.

There are countless different strains of a single type of bacteria, and each has subtle natural genetic mutations which make it different from the other.

In addition, bacterial genes are constantly mutating.

Evolution is a FACT. I believe in the Creator of the Universe, but who's to say he didn't create things this way? One thing always leads to another....

Science and Religion don't have to be at odds...
“To the last, I grapple with thee; From Hell's heart, I stab at thee; For hate's sake, I spit my last breath at thee”
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PostSun Mar 02, 2008 6:04 pm  Reply with quote  

Lysol doesn't kill bacteria, I personally tested this in a lab in college!
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No Way Oligarchs

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Location: Entropia, South-west England
PostSun Mar 02, 2008 6:58 pm  Reply with quote  

Evolution is a FACT

Sorry to interrupt, but PI, is there any chance you could start a new thread containing these fact(s) please? I ask because I've yet to be convinced by any thread I've ever read which tries to support the notion of evolution and I'd be interested in your take. I can't accept the examples you've given though. Natural selection and adaptation to the prevailing environment yes, but not evolution, ie ape becomes man, pterodactyl becomes an owl etc. Thx.
Parsons used the lavatory, loudly and abundantly. It then turned out that the plug was defective and the cell stank abominably for hours afterwards. George Orwell. 1984.
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Richard Burgeson


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Core samples PostTue Mar 04, 2008 11:57 am  Reply with quote  

Well since perverted brought up the cores and ice well in Antarctica, The lake is covered with an average of a meter of water each year that freezes. Somewhere around 3160 meters of ice is covering the lake. No, this doesn't indicate that Antarctica is 3160 years old. Carbon dating the mountains there indicates 4.2 billion years old. What it does indicate is the Earth was much warmer in the past an the lake was uncovered a little more than 3000 years ago. So much for global warming, long periods in the past were warmer than it is today so all you people traumatized by the terroristic government and their puppet mass media , calm down, we are still way under the average for the last 500 million years. Maps found of Antarctica that are extremely old show Antarctica without any ice.
Thomas Jefferson. " Those who beat their swords into plowshares will plow for those who don't."
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PostTue Mar 04, 2008 2:08 pm  Reply with quote  

I agree with Noway. Since any bacteria, virus, can be created in a laboratory, that would mean that man is the one creating evolution by taking natural forms of creation and altering them, to make them more deadly than the original form. This has definitely been proven. Ape turning into man has not. Man can adapt to just about any environment and situation, this has also been proven. Altering man with drugs, chemicals, restricting diets, and so forth can cause abnormalities in the offspring. This has also been proven and used to destroy populations of peoples today and in ancient times. In ancient times, after an invasion the conqueror would often burn the city to the ground and spread the seeds of weeds and invasive plants that would devastate the conquered peoples abilitiy to plant a new harvest. They would also poison their wells. Any people left would then die of starvation and thirst. Today, the Elite are just poisoning us on a world wide scale. I wonder, does this make them a more "evolved" species of human beings? They certainly think they are and have used evolution to "prove" that they are the fittest to survive.

It is much more likely that these "new" bacterias being found have been created in a laboratory and the reason they are resistant to antibiotics is because they have been created to be resistant. Scientists resurrected the Spanish flu, by taking samples from a dead person, and made it far more deadly than the original virus.

All the states of the nation are preparing for a pandemic of flu or something and have all their "response plans" ready to go into effect coordinated with Homeland Security. This gives the governor power of a dictator to lock down cities, quarantine people, shoot to kill anyone trying to leave. Of course, it's all for our benefit, to protect us. It's also all nice and legal.
... we are in process of developing a whole series of techniques which will enable the controlling oligarchy who have always existed and presumably will always exist to get people to love their servitude. Aldous Huxley
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