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"Chemicals to save ozone"

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Sore Throat





Joined: 01 Sep 2000
Posts: 1923
Location: x
"Chemicals to save ozone" PostSun Jun 01, 2008 7:12 pm  Reply with quote  

I apologize in advance for a double post (this is also in the geoengineering thread), but I thought that this was important enough to have a thread of its own. And before anyone goes apoplectic over assuming that I am claiming that this is the reason for Chemtrails, chill out. The jury is still out...we still don't have an answer.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080527155519.htm

What I found most interesting about this article was the inclusion in the graphic of "Chemicals to save ozone". Just what are these "chemicals"? How are they dispersed in the atmosphere? Is this being done now? Would metallic barium (Ba 2+), kept in kerosine to prevent oxidation, be dispersed to combine with ozone depleting halogens to scrub them from the atmosphere? Just how much of such "ozone saving" chemical would need to be released into the atmosphere to have any noticeable and beneficial effect? ... and just one more question, what would be the human health consequences of such "Ozone Saving" chemicals when they returned to ground level and become part of the air we breathe?



Geoengineering Could Slow Down Global Water Cycle

ScienceDaily (May 28, 2008) As fossil fuel emissions continue to climb, reducing the amount of sunlight hitting the Earth would definitely have a cooling effect on surface temperatures.



However, a new study from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, led by atmospheric scientist Govindasamy Bala, shows that this intentional manipulation of solar radiation also could lead to a less intense global water cycle. Decreasing surface temperatures through "geoengineering" also could mean less rainfall.

The reduction in sunlight can be accomplished by geoengineering schemes. There are two classes: the so-called "sunshade" geoengineering scheme, which would mitigate climate change by intentionally manipulating the solar radiation on the earth's surface; the other category removes atmospheric CO2 and sequesters it into the terrestrial vegetation, oceans or deep geologic formations.

In the new climate modeling study, which appears in the May 27-30 early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Bala and his colleagues Karl Taylor and Philip Duffy demonstrate that the sunshade geoengineering scheme could slow down the global water cycle.

The sunshade schemes include placing reflectors in space, injecting sulfate or other reflective particles into the stratosphere, or enhancing the reflectivity of clouds by injecting cloud condensation nuclei in the troposphere. When CO2 is doubled as predicted in the future, a 2 percent reduction in sunlight is sufficient to counter the surface warming.

This new research investigated the sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to greenhouse and solar forcings separately to help understand the global water cycle in a geoengineered world.

While the surface temperature response is the same for CO2 and solar forcings, the rainfall response can be very different.

"We found that while climate sensitivity can be the same for different forcing mechanisms, the hydrological sensitivity is very different," Bala said.

The global mean rainfall increased approximately 4 percent for a doubling of CO2 and decreases by 6 percent for a reduction in sunlight in his modeling study.

"Because the global water cycle is more sensitive to changes in solar radiation than to increases in CO2, geoengineering could lead to a decline in the intensity of the global water cycle" Bala said.

A recent study showed that there was a substantial decrease in rainfall over land and a record decrease in runoff and discharge into the ocean following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The ash emitted from Pinatubo masked some of the sunlight reaching the earth and therefore decreased surface temperatures slightly, but it also slowed down the global hydrologic cycle.

"Any research in geoengineering should explore the response of different components of the climate system to forcing mechanisms," Bala said.

For instance, Bala said, sunshade geoengineering would not limit the amount of CO2 emissions. CO2 effects on ocean chemistry, specifically, could have harmful consequences for marine biota because of ocean acidification, which is not mitigated by geoengineering schemes.

"While geoengineering schemes would mitigate the surface warming, we still have to face the consequences of CO2 emissions on marine life, agriculture and the water cycle," Bala said.

Adapted from materials provided by DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory..


Last edited by Sore Throat on Tue Jun 03, 2008 1:31 am; edited 2 times in total
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Sore Throat





Joined: 01 Sep 2000
Posts: 1923
Location: x
Ozone Depletion - UV Exposure PostSun Jun 01, 2008 7:20 pm  Reply with quote  

Get your SPF 100 ready! NOTE: Purple "Extreme" results in skin damage after 10 minutes of exposure!

Ozone Depletion Reality

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/uv_index/uvi_map_big.gif[/



http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/uv_index/gif_files/uv_g211.png



http://sirocco.accuweather.com/adc_images2/english/forecast/uvi/640x480/NAMER_TODuvi.gif





Just what are the biological consequences of such extreme UV exposure?

Most living organisms have no way to shield themselves.

So what will happen?


TWENTY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE OZONE LAYER

http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone_2002/documents/11_q_as.pdf
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Sore Throat





Joined: 01 Sep 2000
Posts: 1923
Location: x
Using chemicals to cut global warming may damage ozone layer PostSun Jun 01, 2008 7:25 pm  Reply with quote  

http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5h5CQfSiJc_9wjkfyu2qdipRKwdEgD908CNF81


Using chemicals to cut global warming may damage ozone layer

By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID

WASHINGTON (AP) The rule of unintended consequences threatens to strike again. Some researchers have suggested that injecting sulfur compounds into the atmosphere might help ease global warming by increasing clouds and haze that would reflect sunlight.

After all, they reason, when volcanoes spew lots of sulfur, months or more of cooling often follows.

But a new study warns that injecting enough sulfur to reduce warming would wipe out the Arctic ozone layer and delay recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole by as much as 70 years.

"Our research indicates that trying to artificially cool off the planet could have perilous side effects,"
said Simone Tilmes of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo.

"While climate change is a major threat, more research is required before society attempts global geoengineering solutions," said Tilmes, lead author of a paper appearing in Thursday's online edition of the journal Science.

And while one study worries that fixing climate will destroy ozone, another raises the possibility that recovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica will worsen warming in that region.

A full recovery of the ozone hole could modify climate in the Southern Hemisphere and even amplify Antarctic warming, scientists from the University of Colorado at Boulder, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA report in a paper scheduled for Geophysical Research Letters.

Although temperatures have been rising worldwide, there has been cooling in the interior of Antarctica in summer, which researchers attribute to the depletion of ozone overhead.

"If the successful control of ozone-depleting substances allows for a full recovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica, we may finally see the interior of Antarctica begin to warm with the rest of the world," said Judith Perlwitz of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, a joint institute of CU-Boulder and NOAA.

The authors used a NASA supercomputer to model interactions between the climate and stratospheric ozone chemistry. A return to pre-1969 ozone levels would mean atmospheric circulation patterns now shielding the Antarctic interior from warmer air to the north will begin to break down during the summer, they concluded.

The idea of reversing global warming by injecting sulfates into the air was suggested by eruptions such as the 1991 blast by Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which produced a brief cooling.

The massive 1815 eruption of Tambora in what is now Indonesia produced such a strong cooling that 1816 became known as the "year without a summer" in New England, where snow fell in every month of the year.

But Tilmes knew that volcanic eruptions also temporarily thin the ozone layer, which protects people, plants and animals from the most dangerous ultraviolet rays from the sun.

So she and colleagues calculated the effect of suggested sulfate injections and concluded that the result, over the next few decades, would be to destroy between one-fourth to three-fourths of the ozone layer above the Arctic. This would affect a large part of the Northern Hemisphere because of atmospheric circulation patterns.

The sulfates would also delay the expected recovery of the ozone hole over the Antarctic by about 30 to 70 years, or until at least the last decade of this century, they said.

The research was supported by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and NASA.

The study comes just a day after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reported that despite efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, the rate of increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is accelerating.

Concern has grown in recent years about such gases, with most atmospheric scientists concerned that the accumulation is causing increases in the earth's temperature, potentially disrupting climate and changing patterns of rainfall, drought and other storms.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has worked to detail the scientific bases of this problem and the Kyoto agreement sought to encourage countries to take steps to reduce their greenhouse emissions. Some countries, particularly in Europe, have taken steps to reduce emissions.

But carbon dioxide emissions, primarily from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas have continued to increase. Since 2000, annual increases of two parts per million or more have been common, compared with 1.5 ppm per year in the 1980s and less than one ppm per year during the 1960s, NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory said. Last year the increase was 2.4 parts per million.

Meanwhile, in a separate paper in Science, researchers said human activities are at least partly responsible for the Arctic having become a wetter place over the last half century.

Seung-Ki Min of Environment Canada, and colleagues, studied rain and snowfall patterns in the arctic and the factors affecting them.

They concluded that human-induced greenhouse gases have contributed to the increased precipitation rates observed in the Arctic region over the past 60 years.

They warned that this "Arctic moistening" could occur more quickly than current climate simulations indicate.

Their work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Canadian International Polar Year Program.

On the Net:
Science: http://www.sciencemag.org
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Sore Throat





Joined: 01 Sep 2000
Posts: 1923
Location: x
Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change -Ozone PostMon Jun 02, 2008 3:36 am  Reply with quote  

http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/scientific-assessment/Scientific-AssessmentFINAL.pdf

Scientific Assessment of the Effects of
Global Change on the United States



Quote from report, page 49:

ultraviolet radiation levels are still increasing at some Northern Hemisphere stations as a consequence of long-term changes in other factors such as clouds and atmospheric particulates that also affect ultraviolet radiation.
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