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  New HAARP whistle blower (Page 4)

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Topic:   New HAARP whistle blower

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Senior Member

Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-19-2003 08:24 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Glossary of Packet Terms

ACK = ACKnowledgement. A packet sent by a receiving station to tell the sending station that the packet was received correctly and the sequence number of the next packet that it would expect. The sending station then knows whether to send the next packet or to resend a missing packet. A form of handshaking. Also the 1 character handshaking response used in AMTOR mode A (ARQ mode).
acknowledgement = See ACK.
AEA = Advanced Electronics Applications Inc. AEA designs, manufactures and markets a wide range of amateur packet products as well as other amateur related items.
AFSK = A method of digital modulation by which an audio tone is switched between two discrete frequencies corresponding to the 1 or 0 binary state of the data. This is the modulation used for 1200 bps (baud) VHF packet operation.
AFT = Amateur Framing Technique. This is the protocol used by ROSE switches on an RS-232 LAN. First proposed by Toby Nixon of Hayes, it is a pending CCITT adoption as the accepted method for sending X.25 over asynchronous links.
algorithm = An algorithm is a predetermined step by step procedure that solves a specific problem.
alias = An alternate ID for a NETROM/TheNET node often identifying its location or function. Also called mnemonic.
Aloha net = An early (1975) packet radio experiment conducted by the University of Hawaii.
AMPRNet = AMateur Packet Radio NETwork. A network of packet radio/INTERNET gateways that operates as a subnet on the INTERNET system. See also Internet, gateway.
AMRAD = AMateur radio Research And Development corp. A non-profit group based in Virginia devoted to advancing new radio techniques.
AMTEX = AMtor TEXt. A bulletin broadcasting system used by AMTOR bulletin stations like W1AW. Similar to the US Coast Guard NAVTEX system of naval advisories.
AMTOR = AMateur Teleprinting Over Radio. An improved method of RTTY that uses some forms of error recognition and correction to improve copy. Sort of a very simple basic form of packet using 3 character groups. AMTOR uses a limited character set (Capitol letters, numbers and a couple of controls like CR/LF - similar to the Baudot set). AMTOR is normally used on HF frequencies. AMTOR is modeled on a commercial protocol called SITOR. See also ARQ, FEC, SITOR, PACTOR, RTTY, Baudot.
analog signal = An electrical signal that changes in a smooth continuous manner and whose voltage or current may represent a numerical value or other physical property. Compare with: digital signal which is a signal that changes in discrete unambiguous steps.
ANSI = American National Standards Institute. A US organization that sets standards on all sorts of things from nuts to computers. See also ISO.
APLink = Amtor Packet Link. An AMTOR BBS program written by Vic W5SMM and used on an IBM PC to operate an AMTOR mailbox and gateway between the packet BBS network and international AMTOR links.
APR = Apple Packet Radio is a packet radio terminal program for the Apple II series of computers. It was written by and is available from Larry, W1HUE.
APRS = Automatic Packet Reporting System. APRS is a shareware program written by Bob, WB4APR to map and track stations and objects as a graphical display. It can automatically map the location of packet stations using information contained in the beacon message or from a interfaced GPS receiver. It can also transfer messages to these stations and is useful during public service events.
ARP = Address Resolution Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol that matches proper callsign with TCP/IP address using an automatic broadcast query to a remote station if necessary.
ARPA Suite = The set of protocols standardized by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Dept of Defense. Includes TCP and IP as elements, but leaves the lower levels (subnetwork and down) deliberately unspecified. The ARPA suite can be run on top of multiple subnetworks, unifying them into a single Internet.
ARQ = Automatic Repeat reQuest. An error correction technique in AMTOR where the receiving station sends a 1 character ACK/NAK response to each AMTOR group sent. See AMTOR, ACK, NAK, FEC, handshaking.
ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Also called USASCII. The standard code that defines text characters (and control characters) in terms of binary or hexidecimal numbers. It is used for the tranfer of text between computing devices or input/output terminals.
ASLIP = Asynchronous Serial Line Protocol (usually just called SLIP). A technique for encoding IP datagrams so they can be sent across ordinary asynchronous modems and communications hardware.
asynchronous = A method of serial communication which uses start and stop bits to delimit each character and to synchronize the receiver to the data stream. The time between characters is undefined in async mode. Compare with: synchronous serial communication where a clock signal is encoded into the data stream is some manner and which does not need start and stop bits. RS-232 is an asynchronous mode of communication.
audit trail = The list of headers (R: lines) attached to every BBS message that is used to trace the path that the message has taken from its originating BBS. See also header, path, R: header, BBS.
autoforward = A process by which a BBS automatically forwards bulletins and messages to other BBSs according to a predetermined set of directions called a forward file or routing table. autorouting = A process by which a network node can pass traffic to another node via one or more intermediate nodes.
AX.25 = The level 2 link layer protocol used for normal amateur packet communications. AX.25 is derived from the commercial X.25 protocol modified with additional address fields and other info required in amateur packet radio conditions.
B2A/A2B = Binary-to-ASCII/ASCII-to-Binary. A file conversion program written by Brian KA2BQE. Also called BTOA or Radix 85. See also R95, 7-Plus.
backbone = A non-user communications link for node-to-node and node-to-server traffic. Often operates at high speed and with point-to-point links to form a "backbone network" interconnecting nodes and gateways. See also Forwarding Frequency.
backoff = When a packet is sent and not responded to, the sending station will wait a specified "backoff" time before retrying. DWAIT and Persistance are two techniques of backoff. See FRACK, DWAIT, Persistance, collision avoidance.
back-up battery = A lithium cell used in TNCs and other computing devices to maintain the data stored in the RAM during times when the device is powered off. See also RAM, EPROM.
baseband = The original data signal before any encoding or modulation operations are performed on it is called the digital baseband signal.
baud = The "signaling" rate on a data channel expressed as signal elements or symbols transmitted per second. A signal element or symbol may be a pulse or a burst of tone or any discrete signal change that can be measured. Another description of a signaling element would be a time-sliced bit of carrier modulated with data. For example: in 1200 baud packet, one signaling element would be a 1/1200 of a second of carrier (either rf carrier in the case of FSK or audio tone carrier in the case of AFSK) that would be frequency shift modulated by the data. A non- electrical analogy for a signaling element might be the flags that a ship flies to communicate with other ships important information. The flag would be the signaling element and one flag could communicate any one of hundreds of "data" messages. Another analog would be the semaphore signaling system used by Boy Scouts in which the visual picture of the person holding the flags is the signaling element and the position of the flags denotes the data (letters and numbers) being encoded. A signal bit or symbol may contain more than 1 data bit so therefore baud is not equal to bps. A telephone 9600 bps modem usually operates at 2400 baud with 4 bits of data (16 possible data states) in each signaling element. See also bps, data rate, transfer rate.
baudot = A 5 bit code used on RTTY communications. Named after J. Baudot, an early french inventor of telegraphic instruments. Compare with: ASCII which is an 8 bit code capable of coding 256 characters instead of 32 for baudot. See also ASCII, RTTY, AMTOR.
Baycom = A simple modem and software package designed and supported by DL8MBT, DG3RBU and the baycom group in Germany. Early versions were shareware but the latest version (v1.5) is a commercial product marketed in North America by PacComm and Tigertronics.
Baypac = A Baycom modem marketed by Tigertronics Inc.
BBS = Bulletin Board System. A server packet station which sends, receives and distributes bulletins and private messages for the benefit of packet users. It may also provide access to a library of data files of useful information for users. See also CBBS,FBB BBS, home BBS, MBL BBS, MSYS, PMS, REBBS, RLIBBS.
beacon = A regular broadcast of a UI (Unnumbered Information) frame from a packet station for identification purposes or as an information broadcast (such as a Mail-For broadcast from a BBS).
BER = Bit Error Rate. The average number of errors per given quantity of data bits transmitted on a communications system. Usually expressed as errors per thousand or million or some such figure.
BERT = Bit Error Rate Test. Any error test on a communications system or component (such as a modem) to determine the average rate of occurance of errors in the data stream being passed. See also BER.
beta test = Beta test is the pre-release testing of hardware or software with selected typical customers to find out if there are any bugs or problems before releasing it to the general public.
BID = Bulletin ID. A number given to each bulletin sent out in the BBS forwarding system for identification purposes and to prevent duplicates being created in the system. Compare with: MID which is a number given to all messages on the BBS system, personal as well as bulletins. The MID and the BID of a bulletin may be the same. Personal messages do not have BIDs unless they are addressed to a distribution list like SYSOP.
bit = The smallest possible unit of data. A 0 or 1 number in the binary number system. Any one position in a multibit binary number.
bit bucket = Slang for a data "Garbage can". Sending a message to the bit bucket means to erase all trace of the message.
bit-stuffing = A technique used to prevent confusion between any 111111 bit pattern in the data and the flag character (01111110) used to delimit the start and end of each frame in the packet. block check character = In a technique used to check transmission accuracy, a block check character is a character transmitted by the sender after each message block and compared with a similar block check character computed by the receiver. See also checksum, CRC, FCS.
BPQ = A node or packet switch software written by John G8BPQ that creates a multiport node on an IBM PC or clone. Very popular with BBS operators to provide multiconnect BBS services with several ports i.e. LAN and Backbone ports.
bps = Bits per second. The rate at which binary data is transferred on a circuit. See also baud, data rate, transfer rate. Compare with: baud, the "signaling" rate on the data channel.
bridge = A bridge is a server that links between two different frequencies but using the same protocol. Compare with: Gateway, which links two different networks using different protocols.
BSQ = A communications protocol for sending binary files over packet radio. It is somewhat less efficient that other programs of this type and therefore is not recommended. See also 7-Plus, R95, B2A/A2B, conversion program.
BTOA = See B2A/A2B.
BTW = By The Way. An abbreviation sometimes seen in packet messages.
byte = An 8 bit binary number (0 to 255) usually written as two hexidecimal numbers such as 1E (decimal 30) or AF (decimal 175). All modern computers handle data as bytes.
callbook server = A server whose function is to allow stations to access callbook information either on-line or by remote file request.
CBBS = A packet BBS system originally written in C programming language by Hank, WRLI as a "generic" BBS code and released to the public domain in 1986. Other authors and groups then extended and supported various versions of the code. Best known is the DOS version written and supported by Ed, K3RLI and others of the CBBS Group. An Amiga version was produced and supported by Peter, VE5VA and Dave, VE3GYQ produced a LINUX version. Versions for ATARI ST and VMS may also be available.
CCIR = Consultative Committee for International Radio. An international organization that sets standards for radio communication.
CCITT = Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy. A United Nations committee for telecommunications standards.
cellular = Broken up into small areas, or cells. Cellular techniques used in radio communications allow many users to access a network and allow the reuse of frequencies in a more efficient manner. Cells are created by limiting the power transmitted and by the use of specially designed antennas and receivers.
cellular LAN = A packet LAN node (user node) that has a deliberately limited coverage such that it serves only the number of users it can handle efficiently. Some suggest that a cellular LAN should cover a population of 100,000 people with 100-200 amateurs and 50 packet users. The frequencies used could be repeated within short distances so long as the coverage areas do not overlap. The cellular user nodes would be linked together with backbone links to form a network allowing any user to reach any node in the network.
character = Any letter, number, punctuation or any other symbol including control characters, contained in a message.
chat node = See conference node.
checksum = A number used for error checking purposes. It is the arithmetic total of all data bytes in a data block. See also FCS (frame Check Sequence), block check character.
choke/unchoke = When a computer is unable to process data as fast as another computer is sending it, the receiving computer may instruct the sending computer to stop sending the data. This condition is often referred to in the packet world as "choke". "Unchoke" refers to the re-enabling of the sending computer. A computer in this case is the node or TNC.
circuit = In a TheNET network, a circuit is an assigned connection between two nodes. CLNS = Connectionless Network Service (see connectionless, datagram).
CLOVER - An improved technique for packet communications on HF frequencies. Clover uses 4 audio data channels (like a four-leafed clover) and automatically adapts to changing propagation conditions. It uses a form of forward error correction (FEC) to improve efficiency. See also FEC, AMTOR, PACTOR.
cluster = See PacketCluster, node stack.
CMOS = Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. A type of digital circuit made up of MOSFET transistors widely used in computers and other digital devices. CMOS circuitry generally uses very low power and can operate over a wide voltage range (typ 3-15v). Some versions are compatable with TTL circuitry. CMOS is also the name given to the memory that stores set-up configuration information in an IBM AT computer. See also TTL.
collision = Where 2 stations transmit a packet on the same channel during the same time period causing interference and destruction of both packets.
collision avoidance = Any technique that reduces the possibility of another collision on a retry transmission of a packet. See also persistance, slottime, dwait, retry, polling.
communications protocol = The rules governing the exchange of information between devices on a data link. See also protocol.
compressed forwarding = Forwarding between BBSs using a data compression technique to reduce the amount of data to be exchanged. This is common between FBB BBSs.
conference node = A specialized node that allows many users to connect and communicate with each other. Resembles a conference call on the telephone. Some node software like TheNET X1-J and NOS have built-in conference modes. Also called crowd or chat nodes. See also: JNOS, MSYS, NOS, TheNET.
connectionless = refers to a packet protocol or service that does not have the concept of a "connection". Packets may be sent at will, without prior arrangement or need for connection setup/teardown procedures. An analogy would be the postal service where letters (datagrams) can be sent anywhere without prior arrangement.
connection-oriented = refers to a protocol or service that requires that a logical or virtual "connection" first be established with a special procedure before data can be sent. Another procedure is used to "tear down " the connection when it is no longer needed. The amateur packet AX.25 level 2 protocol is connection oriented. An analogy would be the telephone system where you must callup (connect to) another phone before talking and hang up (tear down) the connection when you are finished.
CONS = Connection Oriented Network Service (see connection-oriented, virtual circuit).
contention = Contention is when 2 or more stations on a channel want to transmit at the same time. If they do, it may produce a collision. See also collision, HTS.
converse mode = Conversation mode. The normal connected mode of operation of a packet TNC from the keyboard. Certain characters are used for control purposes and must be avoided in converse mode eg CR (carriage return or enter) will send a packet. Compare with: Transparent mode where all binary or hex characters are sent without regard for commands.
conversion program = Any software program that converts binary files into ASCII text files for easier transmission on packet radio. Examples are 7-Plus, R95, uuencode, etc. COR = Carrier Operated Relay. A circuit that closes a relay (or turns on a transistor) when a radio carrier is detected. This is how a radio repeater knows to turn on its transmitter when it receives a signal on its input frequency.
coverage = The area in which a signal can be heard effectively is that signal's coverage. Usually coverage refers to both transmit and receive. Wide area coverage means that the station can be heard and can hear over a wide area. See cellular, WAN, LAN.
CPU = Central Processing Unit. The "smart" IC that does all the calculations and data manipulations in a computer or computing device.
CRC = Cyclic Redunancy Check. The error checking procedure that verifies a packet. See also block check character, checksum, FCS.
crowd node = See conference node.
CSMA = Carrier Sense, Multiple Access. A system of packet operation that requires that all stations on a channel wait for the channel to be quiet before transmitting. Most amateur radio packet uses CSMA.
CSMA/CA = Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. A CSMA system with a method to reduce repeated collisions between two stations trying to transmit at the same time. One example of collision avoidance is the FRACK/DWAIT method where a random time delay passes before a packet transmission is retried. See also persistance, polling.
CSMA/CD = Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with Collision Detection. This is reference to the system used in AX.25 amateur packet system that detects collisions by using the sequence numbers that accompany each packet and ACK to detect missing frames.
CTS = Clear To Send. A control line on a RS-232 port (pin 5 on DB-25) which indicates that the device is turned on and ready to receive data. Compare with: RTS or DTR which is the line that indicates that a device is got data ready to send. See also RS-232, RTS, DTR.
data = The numerical representation of information. Usually expressed as binary bits or hexadecimal bytes.
DataEngine = A TNC manufactured and marketed by Kantronics. The DataEngine has two HDLC radio ports and one serial port. The modems are plugged in and are available up to 19.2 Kbps.
data hub = A regional BBS which acts as a distribution center or hub for the local BBS network. It also acts as a consolidation BBS for outgoing messages. Compare with a BBS network that forwards in a linear manner, that is from one BBS to the next to the next and so on.
data rate = The basic rate at which data is transferred on a circuit. Often referred to as "baud rate" (which is like saying speed speed) but more correctly should be bits per second or bps. See also baud, bps. data set = A telephone industry name for a modem.
datagram = Information packets in a connectionless environment. Datagrams are completely self-contained as far as the network is concerned. The information needed to get each datagram to its destination (including, but not limited to, full source and destination addresses) is carried in each datagram. An analogy would be a letter sent in the postal system. The envelope contains all of the information (name and address) necessary to deliver the letter (datagram).
DB-9 connector = A common but incorrect name for a DE-9 connector. The second letter refers to the size of the connector shell - a B size is used for 25 pin connectors.
DB-25 connector = The 25 pin subminiature D shaped connector used on many digital devices as a RS-232 (serial) port. See also DE-9 connector.
DCD = Data Carrier Detect. DCD is a signal indicating the presence of data on the communications channel. The TNC uses the DCD signal to hold-off the transmitter when the channel is occupied. Some TNCs and modems employ a "DCD" that simply indicates the presence of a RF carrier or noise energy on the channel rather than true Data Carrier Detect. See also hold-off, modem, TNC.
DCD hold-off = See hold-off.
DCE = Data Communications Equipment. Usually refers to a modem or any equipment that receives data from a DTE (terminal or computer).
DE-9 connector = The 9 pin sub-miniature D shaped connector used on IBM AT computers and many other digital devices as a serial port connector. Often called (wrongly) a DB-9 connector. See also DB-25 connector.
DED = See DED Host.
DED Host = Firmware written by Ron WA8DED that allows a computer to control a TNC with greater interaction than with KISS mode. Also called DED firmware or Host mode.
dedicated link = A point-to-point link between two dedicated ports for the exclusive use of those ports or nodes. The name of a newsletter published by NAPRA. See HTS, backbone, NAPRA.
dedicated port = A port designated for a specific purpose with only one other station on the frequency, usually a tie-in to a server or other network hardware. See dedicated link.
defined neighbor = Another name for NETROM/TheNET's locked route.
deviation = The deviation of a FM radio is the maximum change or shift in the carrier frequency during modulation. It is usually expressed as peak deviation in kilohertz.
DFD-PBBS = An amateur packet BBS program written by Joe N3DFD.
diddle = slang for the shifting of an AFSK signal back and forth.
digi = See digipeater.
Digicom>64 = A software and modem package designed to emulate a TNC on a Commodore 64 computer. The software was written by DL2MDL and others while the modem was designed by Willy YV1AQE. The software and modem info is distributed in North America by Barry W2UP and is described in 73 Magazine Aug 88.
digipeater = A store and forward digital repeater that receives a packet, checks it for errors and retransmits it a short time later. It takes no responsibility for the delivery of the packet. It does not ACK reception of a packet. See also simplex digipeater, duplex digipeater, store-and-forward, real time, repeater. Compare with: full duplex regenerative real-time repeater, which repeats the data at the same time without delay but does not check for errors. Also compare with: node which is normally a store-and-forward but which is "smarter" and takes responsibility for the delivery of the packet toward its destination and acks every packet received correctly. All user TNCs have digipeater capability but current practice discourages use of digipeaters except where it is necessary to get to a network node. Some network nodes (eg. TheNET 2.10) will not accept a digipeated signal.
digital signal = An electrical signal that changes in discrete unambiguous steps, each representing a numerical data value, or logic state.
DIN = Deutsche Industrie Norm (English = German Industrial Standard). A german standards organization responsible for setting industrial standards of products made in Germany. A european equivalent of ANSI or possibly EIA. The most visable evidence of their standards are the various DIN plugs used in consumer electronics products. A 5 pin DIN socket/plug is used as the radio port on most amateur TNCs.
Diode Matrix = A circuit in which the RS-232 ports of a number of NET/ROM nodes or ROSE switches are connected together with isolating diodes. Any node can communicate with any other node on the matrix. See also Hexipus, octopus, dogbone.
DNS = Domain Name Service. A TCP/IP server that acts as a IP address database linking hostname.domain_name to IP address. See also domain name, FQDN, host, hostname, IP address, TCP/IP.
DOC = Department of Communications. The former name of the Canadian federal department that regulates all aspects of radio communications in Canada. It was also called Communications Canada. The new name is Industry Science Canada, Communications Division. The Canadian equivalent of the FCC. See also ISC, FCC.
DOERS = Digital Operators Emergency Radio Service. An active packet network group in Plattsburgh, N.Y.
dogbone = Two diode matrices connected together with two TNCs and a wireline link. See diode matrix, wireline link.
domain name = The IP name designating a group of host computers that are logically (though not necessarily physically) connected together. Domain names are like IP addresses; periods separate parts of the name, with each part representing a different level in the domain hierarchy. But the domain name is ordered in reverse, its highest level portion is at the right, the opposite of IP addresses. An example of a domain name would be which designates all the host computers operating in the AMateur Packet Radio domain which in turn is one of the many ORGanizations in the INTERNET system.
dosgate = A gateway server that links packet radio to a MS-DOS computer and allows one to operate the computer remotely via packet radio.
DOVE = Digital Orbiting Voice Encoder. A station aboard OSCAR 17 satellite.
downlink = A circuit from a node to a user, initiated by the node on command from a distant user.
downloading = The process of sending data from a BBS or other server to the user. Usually refers to the transfer of large files from a server to a user.
DRSI = Digital Radio Systems Inc. Best known for a line of PC plug-in TNC cards.
DSP = Digital Signal Processing. A modern technique of analyzing analog signals by converting the analog signal to a digital form and processing it with a speciallized computer circuit.
DTE = Data Terminal Equipment. Usually refers to a terminal or computer or any equipment that generates or receives data.
DTR = Data Terminal Ready. One of the RS-232 signals (pin 20 on DB-25) that indicates that the computer or terminal is ready to send data. It is similar and sometimes interchangable with RTS (ready to send).
dumb terminal = An ASCII terminal with video display and keyboard that can send and receive ASCII text but cannot do any computational operations.
duplex digipeater = like a simplex digipeater, except that different receive and transmit frequencies are used. Compare with: Full duplex real-time repeater which repeats received data at exactly the same time. See also digipeater, store-and-forward, real-time.
Dwait = A random delay in sending a retry packet. Used as a collision avoidance system. See also persistance.
DXCluster = See PacketCluster.
Dynamic rerouting = In a network where redundancy exists in the backbones from one part of the network to another, some types of network software allow the network to recover automatically from a backbone failure by rerouting traffic through alternate paths. This is called "dynamic rerouting" as it can adjust dynamically to a changing network.
dynamic routing = An automatic process used by some network protocols such as NETROM/TheNET, that sets up and maintains network routing tables based on information received from neighboring nodes. Compare with ROSE, a network protocol in which the routing tables are setup and maintained manually by the node-op. See also dynamic rerouting, node broadcast, NET/ROM, ROSE, TheNET.
e-mail = also email. Electronic Mail. Any messages sent over the BBS system or through the INTERNET system.
Easy Mail = MFJ's version of a personal bbs in a TNC.
EIA = Electronic Industries Association. A standards organization in the USA made up of representatives from most of the major electronic manufacturers. EIA formulates and controls standards defining the electrical and functional of all types of electrical and electronic equipment. The RS-232-C interface is an EIA standard.
emulation = The imitation of any device or system (including physical systems such as weather) by means of software running in a computer system. For example, Baycom software running in a computer (in conjuction with a simple modem) will imitate and perform all the functions of a TNC. Baycom is therefore said to "emulate" a TNC. envelope delay distortion = See group delay distortion.
EPROM = Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. A non-volatile memory IC used in TNCs and other computers to hold the operating program. It can be erased and reprogrammed a large number of times.
ERS = Exposed Receiver Syndrome. This is a condition where a packet station, be it node or user, is unable to transmit due to the fact that it perceived the channel as being active almost continuously. This can be caused by Hidden Transmitter Syndrome (HTS) and is often the case when a node is located on a high hill with surrounding metro areas. It is also a serious problem on widely used WAN channels such as 145.01 MHz. See also HTS, WAN, LAN, hold-off.
even parity = An error checking method in which each character must have an even number of 1 or "on" bits in its ASCII binary number.
eye pattern = A pattern produced on an oscillioscope to show jitter and phase distortion of a data signal transmitted on a communication channel or through a particular component such as a modem. The eye pattern is produced by triggering the scope with the original data signal and displaying the received data stream on the horizontal trace. F:
fax = FAcsimile(X). A method for transmission of pictures and graphics data. The graphics data may be text material.
FBBS also FBB BBS = An increasingly popular amateur BBS software written by Jean-Paul F6FBB and others.
FCC = Federal Communications Commission. The US federal commission that regulates all aspects of radio communications in the United States. The FCC is equivalent to ISC Communications Div (DOC) in Canada.
FCS = Frame Check Sequence. A 16 bit (2 byte) number included with each frame in the packet used for error checking.
FEC = Forward Error Correction. A technique of error correction in which packets or AMTOR groups combine the data from two or more transmissions to yield less errors. In AMTOR FEC mode, the data is sent twice and the receiving station(s) record all known characters without resorting to an ARQ ACK/NAK transmission. See also AMTOR, ACK, ARQ. FINGER = A way of obtaining an INFO message from a TCP/IP station.
firmware = Software stored permanently in a ROM or EPROM IC.
flag = A data character (01111110) used to delimit packets (beginning and end) and to separate multiple frames in one packet transmission. The same character is often used during the TXDelay to help synchronize the TNC receiver circuits at the beginning of packets. Should 6 binary ones occur together in the text of the packet, a process called bit-stuffing is used to modify the character so that it can not be confused with a flag character. See also bit-stuffing, TXDelay. In computer terminology, a flag is a single status bit included in an information field. For example, in a BBS program a number of flags are used to indicate whether a message has been read, forwarded, killed, old, etc.
flat network = A flat network is a system of dual port nodes where one of the ports is a backbone port. All backbone ports in the network are on the same frequency and may not be hidden transmitter free. It is said to be flat because the network topology is flat. A flat backbone port is not on 2m or HF. This port specification is also used where the other stations on frequency are not able to operate with respect to Hidden Transmitter Syndrome or if locked routes and connect disable are not used on all adjacent nodes.
flame = A critical, negative and/or insulting response to a BBS bulletin or message.
FLEXNET = A network protocol developed by .... See also TheNET, NETROM, ROSE, TEXNET.
flow control = The control of data flow on a communications circuit by software (XON/XOFF) or hardware means (RTS/CTS). See also handshaking, RTS, CTS, XON/XOFF.
flood bulletins = BBS bulletins that are forwarded to all BBSs in a given geographic area (like water flooding a skating rink) or a group of BBSs that specialize in a common field. "Flood" regions can be local, regional or national or alternatively they could be a special interest group such as RACES.
flood header = The bulletin header information that specifies what geographical region or special interest group is to receive a flood bulletin.
FM = Frequency Modulation. A method of transferring data or voice information over a carrier signal such as a radio wave. FM is done by changing the frequency of the carrier in direct proportion to the waveform (audio or digital). The amount of change is called deviation and is usually around 3-5 KHz peak for a typical voice radio. forward file = This is the disk file in a packet bulletin board system (PBBS) that is responsible for directing the autoforwarding operation. By making entries in this file, the PBBS sysop may select what packet paths are used to each PBBS that is forwarded to, when each operation is performed and what traffic is sent during each sequence of the forwarding operation. See also autoforward.
forwarding = The transferring of messages between BBSs.
forwarding frequency = A channel or frequency used exclusively for transferring messages between BBSs.
FQDN = Fully Qualified Domain Name is the combination of the complete IP hostname and complete IP domain name to designate a unique IP address. For example The period at the end is essential to the FQDN as it indicates that is the end of the address.
FRACK = FRame ACKnowledge delay. This is the time after a packet is transmitted by a TNC before the TNC decides that a frame acknowledgement is not going to occur. At that point the TNC performs backoff (waits a random time) and retries the frame transmission.
frame = A single block of data along with necessary addresses and control bytes that can comprise a packet. A packet may contain from 1 to 7 frames sent together. freeware = Computer programs released into the public domain for the unrestricted use by anyone at no charge. FSK = Frequency Shift Keying. A method of digital modulation where the carrier is switched between two distinct frequencies. This is the technique used on HF packet and many of the high speed modems such as the G3RUH 9600 bps system.
FTP = File Transfer Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol that transfers files (ASCII text or binary) between TCP/IP host computers.
full-duplex = Communications in which reception and transmission take place at the same time. In radio, this means that transmission and reception are on two separate channels. See also half-duplex, repeater.
G3RUH modem = A 9600 bps plug-in modem for TNC-2s and other amateur TNCs. It was developed by James Miller, G3RUH. Circuitry contains adaptable filters to adjust for bandwidth limitations in commercial radios and a"randomizer" circuit to prevent DC offsets on modulated data. Similar to but may not be totally compatable with K9NG modem. Believed to be compatable with the new TAPR 9600 bps modem. See also modem, K9NG modem, TAPR, HAPN.
G8BPQ = John G8BPQ is the author of a widely used packet switch software that emulates a multi-port TNC on a IBM PC or clone. This software which normally runs in TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) mode allows routing from an AX.25 network or NETROM/TheNET system directly to the PBBS or other program running on the PC. Unlike a TheNET node which can handle only one radio per TNC, the G8BPQ program may direct traffic in and out of several radios by using KISS TNCs or internal TNC/modem cards.
gateway = A very general term for anything that connects two networks together especially two networks with different protocols or different parameters. For example between a VHF 1200 bps network and an HF APLINK station. In the ARPA world, "gateway" has a much more specific meaning: a packet switch that handles IP datagrams. Gateway was also the name of a packet newsletter published by ARRL and now included in QEX magazine.
group delay distortion = Also called envelope delay distortion. A distortion of the data signal produced when the different frequency spectral components of the digital signal are phase shifted by different amounts resulting in a distorted pulse shape. For best results, it is important that radio filters, amplifiers and other components in the communication system have a constant phase shift across their bandwidth. This is called "flat group delay" characteristic.
GP = Graphics Packet. GP is an icon driven DOS packet terminal program written by Ulf DH1DAE. Features include BBS listing capture, message number transmission, off-line editor, auto real time 7PLUS decoding and "QSO spy". The program is "Hamware" and free to all radio amateurs.
GTEPMS = A BBS program written by Doug, N2GTE. It is reported to be compatable with FBB BBS.
H-routing = See Hierarchical routing.
half-duplex = Communications in a duplex system arranged to permit operation in either direction but not in both directions at the same time. See also full-duplex, digipeater, simplex, simplex digipeater, semi-duplex.
hamware = Computer programs released as freeware specifically for use by radio amateurs at no charge. There may be restrictions limiting the commercial use of the programs. See also freeware, shareware.
handshake = The exchange of data or signals between sending and receiving devices that ensure that the circuit is ready for communications. On RS-232 linked devices, the RTS (or DTR) and CTS lines are used for hardware handshaking or Control-S/Control-Q characters for software handshaking. On packet radio circuits, supervisory bytes in the packet and ACK and other control frames are used for handshaking. See RTS, CTS, DTR, RS-232.
HAPN = Hamilton Area Packet Network. An active amateur packet group in Hamilton, ON best known for the development and marketing of a 4800 bps modem (for installation in TNC-2 or clones) and plug-in TNC cards for PCs. For more information,contact: HAPN, 5193 White Church Road, Mount Hope, Ont L0R 1W0. See also HAPN-T modem.
HAPN-T modem = A 4800 bps add-on modem card for TNC-2 (and clone) TNCs which uses bipolar pulse modulation and can be used with most any radio transceiver. See also HAPN.
HAZ-MAT = HAZardous MATerial. A database of hazardous material properties that is available on some BBS systems.
HDLC = High-level Data Link Control. The ISO level 2 link level protocol on which AX.25 was based.
header = The R: lines attached to a BBS message that indicate the forwarding path that the message has taken. The header lines contain the date and time, message number, and hierarchical address of each BBS that handled the message. Header may also describe the TO, From and @BBS address fields of the message as well as the subject line information of the message.
heard list = On some user TNCs and on certain node and BBS systems, the most recent stations heard are listed in a heard list. On a TheNET Plus node, the user stations heard in the last 15 minutes are listed in a heard list.
hex = Hexadecimal. Numbers to the base 16 (0-9,A-F).
HEX9 = An Amateur packet group based north of Toronto in the Barrie, ON area.
Hexipus = A six port diode matrix card developed and marketed by NEDA (North East Digital Assoc). See Diode Matrix, octopus, NEDA.
hidden terminal syndrome = Another name for hidden transmitter syndrome.
hidden transmitter syndrome (HTS) = A condition in a CSMA packet system where several stations who cannot hear each other (they are HIDDEN TRANSMITTERS) are allowed to transmit at the same time and thus cause collisions thereby reducing throughput on the channel. It is also called the hidden terminal syndrome in some areas. See also CSMA, collision, throughput. Compare with: ERS exposed receiver syndrome, which is the inhibiting of transmit at a high node site due to other nodes on the same channel at a distance. They may not be strong enough to trash the local packet but reduce the throughput due to the delayed response.
hierarchical address = A geographical addressing system for stations involved in the amateur BBS system. The hierarchical address is a series of abbreviations of increasingly larger geographical areas (each abbreviation is separated by periods) within which the station resides. For example, the hierarchical address of a major Montreal BBS is VE2FKB.#MTL.PQ.CAN.NA which in effect says that VE2FKB is at Montreal which lies within Province of Quebec which lies within Canada which lies within North America. The state/province abbreviations used are those normally accepted by the postal system. National abbreviations are set by international agreement.
hierarchical routing = A BBS forwarding technique using the hierarchical address as guidance.
hold-off = The process by which a TNC delays transmitting until the DCD indicates the channel is clear. See DCD, collision avoidance.
home BBS = The "home BBS" is the full service BBS at which a user receives his mail and to which all mail for that user is addressed in the format @ . It is very important that each user chooses ONE and only one home BBS and that it is a "full-service" BBS known to the BBS forwarding system. Otherwise the user's messages will get hung up in the system.
host = The computer or terminal attached to a TheNET node when operating in host mode for sysop entry to the serial port. Host is also the name given any computer running TCP/IP. See also hostname, remote host, TheNET.
host mode = A program written by Ron WA8DED which allows a computer to control a TNC directly. Some BBS programs took advantage of the command language in Host Mode to control the TNC and to allow multiple users to connect to the BBS at the same time. TheNET incorporates a very small subset of the Host Mode command set. Also called DED Host software (or firmware when stored in an EPROM). Host Mode is also used to refer to the condition where a node has a CRT terminal or computer plugged into it that will be used in ASCII mode (not using networking protocol).
hostname = An alphabetic alternative to the numeric IP address designating a single computer running TCP/IP. The hostname is usually written in lower case. For example: a computer that Dino, VE2DM runs as a test node has a hostname of test.ve2dm whereas its IP address is . Obviously the hostname is easier to remember. See also domain name, FQDN, Internet address, TCP/IP.
HTF = Hidden transmitter free. See HTS free.
HTS = See Hidden Transmitter Syndrome. Also called Hidden Terminal Syndrome.
HTS free = A packet channel with no hidden transmitters. This may be a dedicated point-to-point link with only two stations on it, a shared channel on which all stations can hear each other or a shared full duplex channel with a repeater to link the stations. See also hidden transmitter syndrome, repeater, point-to-point link.
image = See ROM image.
Internet = The Internet is a public system of computers which communicate over commercial lines (usually telephone or leased telephone lines) using TCP/IP. Most Internet terminals are at government and commercial research facilities and educational facilities. Use of the Internet network is free although use of the computers that are hooked into the Internet may not be. Most people who have access to the Internet either pay a fee or have connection to the network from work or school.
Internet address = An Internet address is the total e-mail address of a user in the Internet system. It consists of the user's log-in name and the FQDN (fully Qualified Domain Name) separated by an @ character. See also domain name, e-mail, FQDN, host, hostname, Internet. IP = Internet Protocol. The core protocol of the ARPA suite. IP is a simple connectionless (datagram) protocol that handles addressing, fragmentation and type-of-service routing in the heterogeneous internetwork environment. See TCP/IP, KA9G, ARPA Suite, connectionless.
IP Address = A numeric address designating a host computer running TCP/IP. For example: VE2DM's test computer is . Compare this with his hostname.domain_name See also domain name, FQDN, host, hostname, Internet address, TCP/IP.
IS = Intermediate System. ISO's term for a packet switch.
ISC = Industry Science Canada. ISC is the Canadian government ministry that merged Communication Canada with Science and Technology. ISC is now responsible for the control of all radio communication in Canada. See also DOC, FCC.
ISO = International Standards Organization. ISO formulates and publishes specifications for everything from screw threads to computer communication protocols. See also OSI.
jitter - variations in the phase or amplitude of a data modulated signal having no relationship to the data. On amateur packet signals, phase jitter may cause errors in decoding the data.
JNOS = A version of KA9Q NOS TCP/IP software written by WG7J that combines a BBS, node, and conference server with TCP/IP functions.
K9NG modem = A 9600 bps modem designed by Steve K9NG and marketed by TAPR. It uses the same modulation technique as the G3RUH modem but does not have the adaptive filters. The "randomizer" circuit from the K9NG modem is used in the G3RUH modem. It may be compatable with the G3RUH in some circumstances but not guaranteed. It has been replaced by the new 9600 bps modem from TAPR. See also modem, G3RUH modem, TAPR, HAPN-T modem.
KA9Q Internet (KA9Q NOS) = Original name for TCP/IP or NOS amateur packet software. A C software package developed by Phil Karn KA9Q and others. Implements the major elements of the ARPA protocol suite: IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, Telnet, FTP, SMTP and ARP. Also implements subnetwork drivers for SLIP, KISS, AX.25, Ethernet and Appletalk. Primary environment is the IBM PC (and clones), but has been rewritten for 68K- based machines like the Commodore Amiga and Apple Macintosh, also to UNIX system 5 environments. See also NOS, TCP/IP, Internet, ARPA Suite.
KAM = Kantronics All Mode. The multi-mode TNC made by Kantronics.
KA-Node = A level 3 networking protocol written and supported by Kantronics. It is not compatable with NETROM/TheNET or other network protocols and must communicate with them at level 2 AX.25 protocol. See also K-NODE.
Kantronics = Kantronics designs, manufactures and markets a range of amateur packet products including the popular KPC TNCs and KAM multimode controller.
keplerian elements = The set of numbers used to completely describe the motion of an object in space such as a satellite. Also called orbital elements.
keyboard-to-keyboard = Communications between two packet user stations in real time. Tends to be rather slow unless both operators are fast typists.
kill = The process of deleting a message from a BBS after reading it or for other reasons.
KISS = Keep It Simple, Stupid. A TNC operating mode where the TNC merely translates packets between half duplex, synchronous HDLC on the radio port and full duplex asynchronous SLIP framing on the host port; the host computer must implement all higher level protocols, including AX.25 if it is used. Gives the host computer full access to and control over all fields in each packet. Compensates for the lack of a HDLC hardware controller on many computers. The KISS TNC is only responsible for TX delay and DCD hold-off. Kiss is used with TCP/IP hosts and also often used with BPQ and other such PC based packet switches. See also TCP/IP.
K-Node = An operating mode in the Services Section of a MSYS PBBS system that operates like and is compatable with a Kantronics KA-Node. See also KA-Node, MSYS.
LAN = See local area network.
LAPB = Link Access Procedure, Balanced. AX.25 is based on the Balanced Link Access Procedure of the CCITT X.25 standard. LAPB in turn conforms to the HDLC standard.
Laptop-5 = A DOS packet terminal program written by Joe, N3DFD.
Lan-Link = A shareware terminal program written and supported by Joe, G3ZCZ. See also YAPP, Paket.
link layer = Level 2 in the 7 layer OSI computer communications protocol set. AX.25 is the amateur packet level 2 protocol.
local area network = A digital network channel covering a small geographical area or serving a limited number of users. In the case of amateur packet, some suggest that a LAN should not cover an amateur population of more than 100-200 amateurs and should not have more than one high volume data generator (node or server) on the same channel to control congestion. A properly configured LAN will have a minimum of hidden transmitter syndrome problems. See also wide area network, HTS, ERS. Compare with: wide area network, which is a network covering a large geographical area and often directly linked to other networks on the same channel.
locked node = An entry in the nodes table of a TheNET node that has been manually entered by the sysop and which will not be modified by the dynamic routing algorithm. A locked node is used by the sysop as a network management device.
locked route = An entry in the routes table of a TheNET node that has been manually entered by the sysop and which will not be modified by the dynamic routing algorithm. A locked route is used by the sysop to modify the quality of a route to a neighbor node or to prevent an unreliable route to a neighbor node from affecting the routing process.
loopback = A test in which the output of a modem modulator or other full-duplex digital device is looped back to the input of the demodulator or device. The looped back signal may be either analog or digital.
mail box = A personal bbs in a TNC. Sometimes also refers to any BBS system handling personal mail. See also Mail Drop, PMS, Personal BBS.
Mail Drop = AEA's version of a personal bbs in a TNC. See also PMS, personal BBS, PakMail.
mark = One of the two possible binary states in a data communications system. The mark is the resting state in an asynchronous serial system. The negative voltage state on a RS-232 port is called mark. One of the two tones in an AFSK modulation is mark. Compare with: space, which is the opposite state.
matrix = See diode matrix, hexipus, octopus.
matrix monitor = A matrix monitor is a hardware or software device that can display the data passing across a diode matrix in a form that is legible and informative. G8BPQ switch software includes such a program.
MBL BBS = An amateur BBS program written by Jeff WA7MBL. See also YAPP.
MCP = Multimode Communications Processor. A fancy name for a multi-mode TNC such as the KAM.
MFJ = MFJ Enterprises Inc. MFJ designs, manufactures and markets a range of amateur packet products such as the popular MFJ-1270 TNC (TAPR TNC-2 clone) used for network building as well as other amateur related items.
MID = Message ID. An identification number given to all messages entered on a BBS system. For bulletins it is often the same as the BID. See also BID.
MIR = Russian (Soviet) space station whose cosmonauts regularly use packet radio to communicate with amateurs around the world. The callsigns used all end in MIR.
mnemonic = See alias.
MP-Net = Montreal Packet Net. A group of amateurs from Montreal, Quebec who were responsible for the very first amateur packet radio broadcast on May 31, 1978.
modem = MOdulator/DEModulator. A device which takes the data modulated signal (RF, audio or pulse) received from the communications channel and restores the data to a form that can be used by the CPU in a computing device (or that can be read on a terminal). At the same time it converts data from the computing device to a form that can be transmitted out on the communications channel. Most TNCs contain an internal 1200 bps modem and have space to plug-in another modem for a different radio data speed. See also TNC, G3RUH modem, K9NG modem, HAPN- T modem. modem header = The connector inside a TNC used to connect an external modem to the TNC for higher speed or different mode of communication. All the data and control lines from the CPU/SIO to the modem pass through this connector.
MSYS = An amateur packet BBS software written by WA8BXN. Versions also contain switch node, dxcluster and conference node modes. See also BBS, node, K-Node, NET-Node.
MTL/WQC Network = A network of nodes in Montreal Area dedicated to linking Montreal west to Ontario and south into northern USA. Main linking is through a hub repeater and node stack at VE2RM site at Rigaud, QC. multistreaming = A process by which a user can connect to several stations at once.
NAK = Negative AcKnowledgement. A packet or AMTOR ACK response that indicates that the data was NOT received correctly. See also AMTOR, ACK, handshake.
NAPRA = Northwest Amateur Packet Radio Association. This is an association founded in 1983 to promote packet radio in the Pacific North West region of USA. They publish a newsletter called "Dedicated Link".
NEDA = North East Digital Association. NEDA is an association that was formed in 1989 to support and promote efficient packet network development. Development of network concepts and standards as well as the writing and publication of up-to-date network and general packet information are important goals of NEDA. Membership is open to all interested persons and further information can be had from: NEDA, Box 563, Manchester NH 03105.
neighbor = In a network of packet nodes, the neighbor of a node is any node that is talked to DIRECTLY on either the serial or radio ports.
NEPRA = New England Packet Radio Association. An amateur packet group based in the New England/Boston area.
NET-Node = A operating mode within the Services Section of a MSYS PBBS system that emulates a NET/ROM or TheNET node. See also MSYS, K-Node, NET/ROM, TheNET, node. NET/ROM = A proprietary product of Software 2000, Inc (WA8DED and W6IXU). Consists of ROM firmware for the TNC-2. Implements AX-25 at the link layer (L2), with ad-hoc protocols at the network (L3) and transport layer (L4). Also provides a command interpreter and "transport level bridge" that patches incoming or outgoing regular AX.25 level 2 connections to internal transport layer connections. Uses datagrams at the network layer, virtual circuit at the transport layer. Provides automatic routing between NET/ROM nodes but the user is still responsible for "source routing" between the end NET/ROM nodes and the ultimate source and destination. Compare with: ROSE, a network protocol which is similar in function but uses manual management of routing tables rather than automatic dynamic routing. See also TheNET, BPQ, ROSE.
network = In packet terms, a network is a system of nodes interconnected in such a way that any node can communicate with any other node in the system in an efficient and speedy manner. An example would be a network of user ports wire-linked to backbone nodes that are in turn connected to each other by UHF point-to-point links.
network co-ordinator = The person or group responsible for the orderly development of the packet network, including channel frequency co-ordination but more importantly the co-ordination of internode linking and the control of LAN coverage areas so that the number of users that can be served at the same time is maximized. The network co-ordinator must also try to resolve disputes between various network user groups that would endanger the network efficiency. The network co-ordinator must be very well informed on the latest network techniques and the identity of all operating nodes and servers in his region. network layer = Level 3 of the seven layer OSI communications protocol set. The network layer specifies the communications between adjacent nodes or networks and interfaces with the User at the level 2 link layer and with distant nodes at the level 4 transport layer protocol.
jnode = Strictly speaking a node is any active packet station. However in normal packet terminology, a node is an intelligent packet data switch and router of real-time data which takes responsibility for the correct delivery towards its destination. See also server node, digi, KA-Node, K-Node, repeater, network, NET/ROM, TheNET, gateway. Compare with: digipeater, a dumb node that does not take responsibility for (does not acknowledge) the packet that it repeats.
node broadcast = In a NETROM/TheNET node network, a node broadcast is one or more UI frames sent by the node at regular intervals containing routing information on all the nodes in its node table. The neighbor nodes use these node broadcasts to update their node routing tables. Node broadcasts are the key to dynamic routing method of route table maintenance. Node broadcasts add a significant amount of overhead to the channel. Compare with ROSE: A network protocol that uses manual routing table maintenance and thus does not need node broadcasts. See also dynamic rerouting, dynamic routing, NET/ROM, TheNET. node cluster = See node stack.
node hopping = When the user explores the network by the process of connecting from one node to the next along a path and checking the routes available by reading the nodes table, routes list and INFO response. It is a good way to learn about the network and what is available on it. Also called route stepping.
node-op = The person(s) responsible for the software and parameters of a node stack. Also called site sysop.
node stack = Two or more nodes on one site interconnected by a diode matrix. Also called a node cluster.
NOS = Node Operating System. A TCP/IP based node software. See also JNOS, KA9G, TCP/IP.
NRZ = Non Return to Zero. A binary code format in which binary ones and zeros are represented by two discrete voltage levels and the voltage remains at the indicated level for the duration of the code bit. Compare with RZ or bipolar pulse modulation in which the signal would return to an average level between bits. The name NRZ is somewhat confusing but it may come from the magnetic recording industry where zero indicated an unmagnetized state on the tape and binary ones and zeros were indicated by positive or negative magnetization. NRZ is the form that most binary signals take within computer circuitry. See also NRZI.
NRZI = Non Return to Zero Inverted. A binary code format in which a data 0 produces a transition (either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0) in the code and a 1 in the data produces no change in the code. It does not mean that the NRZ code is merely inverted. The main advantage of NRZI is that it does not matter at what point in the transmission that one starts to decode, the subsequent data will be the same. The code signal actually sent to the modem and transmitted by an amateur packet TNC, is in NRZI format. On receive the TNC converts it back to NRZ format for the CPU to process. NRZI is also known as NRZ-S (space).
NTECH = NEDA technical committee. A committee operating under NEDA that formulates technical standards and resolves problems in the NEDA network or on networks in general.
NTS = National Traffic System. A volunteer amateur radio system for handling formal traffic messages, traditionally by CW but increasingly by packet and other digital modes in recent years. NTS had its origins in the very beginning of the ARRL (Relay meant relay of messages, not unlike todays forwarding of messages through the BBS system). null modem = A interconnect device or data cable used to connect together two DCE or two DTE digital devices. The RS-232 TXData/RXData and RTS/CTS lines are swapped.
obsolescence count = In a NETROM/TheNET system, each node entry in the nodes table is given an "initial obsolescence count" each time the route is confirmed by a neighbor's node broadcast. The obsolescence count is reduced at regular intervals. When the obsolescence count reaches a predetermined value, the node entry is considered obsolete and is no longer broadcast to its neighbors.
Octopus = An eight port diode matrix card once marketed by NEDA. For technical reasons (it loaded the RS-232 too much) it was replaced by the Hexipus board. See diode matrix, hexipus.
OPEN = Ontario Packet Experimenters Network. For more information see TPG or HEX9. Also Ohio Packet Experimenters Network.
OSI = Open Systems Interconnect. A project of the ISO to develop a set of computer communication protocols.
overhead = The non-information data that is sent on a channel to control routing, addresses and supervisory bytes sent with the information data in the packet and any other transmissions that do not convey actual information but still take up time and capacity on the channel. Some node protocols (like ROSE) have less overhead than others (like TheNET).
PacComm = PacComm Packet Radio Systems Inc. PacComm designs, manufactures and markets a range of packet radio products, both amateur and commercial, including the popular Tiny-2 TNC used in many network nodes.
packet = A packet is a block of many characters (or bytes) which are sent together, along with a few extra characters (checksum) used to guarantee that the data is completely error free. The packet includes addressing information so that the receiving station knows that the packet is for it as well as who sent the packet. A packet may consist of one or more smaller groups of characters called frames. See also datagram, frame.
packet switch = Another name for a L3/L4 node. See also node, ROSE, NET/ROM, TheNET, BPQ.
PacketCluster = A proprietary software from Pavillion Software. It creates a speciallized BBS for DXers and operates with all users connected in such a way that dx information can be distributed in "real time".
PacketTen = An advanced high speed network node controller designed and marketed by Gracilus Inc. The PacketTen controller will handle up to 10 ports, some of which can be up to 1 Mbps (that one million bits per second) and runs TCP/IP NOS code.
PACSAT = An amateur radio satellite carrying a packet store-and-forward node. When launched became OSCAR 16. OSCAR 19 (LUSAT built by AMSAT Argentina) is almost identical.
PACTOR = PACket Teleprinting On Radio. An HF digital communications protocol developed in Germany. PACTOR combines the good features of both AMTOR and packet for improved, more efficient HF data communications. There are two basic versions of PACTOR, the original German system that uses a unique form of analog bit addition method of forward error correction (FEC) and "digital" PACTOR that uses software to attempt to emulate the FEC system. The analog FEC is much superior but requires the use of a special PACTOR controller whereas the digital PACTOR can be run on a regular multi-mode TNC but requires a much higher signal- to-noise ratio to receive correctly.
PAD = Packet Assembler/Disassembler. A device that interfaces an ordinary "dumb" terminal to an X.25 packet network. It gathers typed characters into outgoing packets and translates incoming packets back into serial asynchronous data streams. Also provides a simple command interpreter for setting up and tearing down connections, controlling parameters, etc. The amateur packet radio TNC was heavily modeled on the PAD.
Paket = A terminal program written by Tony VK2DHU. See also Lan-link, Yapp.
PakMail = AEA's name for their personal BBS in a TNC.
Pakratt = AEA's PK-232 multi-mode TNC.
parameters = The various timers, counters and other variables that control the operation of TheNET and similar nodes are called the node parameters. The node-ops use these parameters to manage the network and maintain efficient transfer of packets between the various nodes in a network. For more information on node parameters, contact your local node-op or network co-ordinator.
parity = A bit added to a binary word for error checking purposes. For odd parity, a 1 or 0 bit is added to 7 data bits so that the total bit count is an odd number. For even parity, the total bit count is made even with the parity bit. Parity words can be similarly used with groups of binary words.
parms = See parameters.
path = The path is the designated route through nodes, digis, and servers that must be used to pass data from one point to another. On a BBS message, the path is the list of BBS's thru which that message passed from origin to destination.
PBBS = A PBBS can mean either a Packet Bulletin Board System (a normal full service BBS) or a Personal BBS. A personal BBS would better be referred to as a personal mailbox, maildrop, PMS or other such name to distinguish it from the full service PBBS. See also BBS, MSYS, FBBS, REBBS, RLIBBS, personal bbs.
PC*PA = Personal Computer Packet Adapter. A PC plug-in card made and marketed by DRSI that operates as a TNC.
perming = In a NETROM/TheNET system, the technique of network management by "locking routes" and "locking nodes"is called perming. persistance = A collision avoidance technique where the decision to transmit a packet is made by generating a random number between 0 and 255, comparing it to a parameter called p-persistance and if the random number is less than the p-persistance parameter, the packet is sent. If the number is greater, the TNC waits a period of time called slottime and then repeats the process. The p-persistance parameter is usually set to a value equal to 256 divided by one less than the maximum number of stations expected on the channel. See also Frack, Dwait, slottime, collision avoidance, back-off.
personal bbs = A limited function BBS contained within a users TNC firmware with which the user can enter or receive his/her own personal messages from other users or from the nearest full service BBS. Usually referred to by one of the commercial trade names such as PMS, Mail Drop, etc.
PID = Protocol ID. The first byte of the packet frame which identifies which protocol is used for the packet frame. AX.25 PID is $F0 while TheNET and other higher level protocols have other PIDs.
PING = Packet InterNet Groper. A TCP/IP diagnostic procedure that checks if another station is on the air and what the quality of the link is.
PM = Phase Modulation. A modulation technique in which the phase of the carrier is shifted in direct relation to the modulating signal. Phase modulation is actually the modulation used in most so called "FM" radios used for voice communications. Phase modulation in which the modulating waveform has been de-emphasized by 6db per octive yields a signal identical to FM modulation. See also FM.
PMP = Poor Man's Packet. A simple modem and software package to be used with a personal computer to emulate a TNC. Developed by Andy N8KE and Kevin WB2EMS and published in 73 Magazine Aug 91. More info available from Kevin Feeney, WB2EMS. See also Baycom.
PMS = Personal Message System. PacComm's name for their version of a personal bbs in a TNC.
point-to-point link = A radio link between two nodes on a non-user channel using beam antennas, cross- polarization, minimum power and other techniques to limit the radio signal to the intended nodes. See also dedicated links, backbone, shared multi-point link, HTS.
poll packet = In the latest version of AX.25 packet protocol, if a transmitted information packet is not acknowledged, the transmitting TNC will generate a poll packet to see if the destination TNC is still around. If the poll packet is acknowledged, then the transmitting TNC will once again attempt to send the information packet. Note that if there is periodic noise at the receive TNC, than the poll packets might be received but a particularly long information packet might never get through. In that case, the retry process might take place until timeout occurs and the link is disconnected. See also retry.
polling = In packet terms, polling is a collision avoidance method in which one master station queries each of the users on the channel if they have a packet to transmit. The sending stations will not transmit until they have been "polled" by the master station. In this way no two stations will transmit at the same time thus avoiding collisions.
POP = Post Office Protocol. A TCP/IP server that acts as a temporary storage of messages for stations that are not on the air continuously. Does not have the full functions of a BBS.
port = An input/output channel or connector on a node or TNC. A TNC normally has one or more radio ports hooked to a radio transceivers(s) and a RS-232 or serial port that may be connected to the users terminal (computer) or another node serial port in the case of a TheNET (or other type of higher level node) node stack. A port may also refer to a special purpose node such as a user-port, IP-port, backbone port, etc or any such access node to a network.
PQNET = A loosely organized group of sysops and node-ops in Quebec.
PR = Packet Radio.
PROM = Programmable Read Only Memory. A memory IC in which the data is permanently stored and cannot be altered. The term PROM actually covers both erasable PROMs such as EPROM and EEPROM and non-erasable proms programmed by blowing fusable links or diodes on the chip. In practice however PROM usually refers only to the non-erasable types. See also EPROM, ROM. protected backbone = A protected backbone is a channel where none of the known nodes involved on the backbone will accept traffic from any unknown device on the channel.
protocol = A communications protocol is the set of rules and procedures used to implement a technique or method of communications.
pseudo-digital repeater = A full duplex node or repeater which transmits a signal (such as a tone, flags or unmodulated rf carrier) to indicate to the other stations on the channel that the channel is in use. An example would be a HAPN 4800 bps node that transmitted a carrier whenever an rf signal was heard on the input channel. As the HAPN DCD is actually a noise squelch system, the presence of such a carrier on the input of the node is "repeated" to the output channel. This can be very useful on split frequency multiuser shared channels. It is also simpler than a full regenerating repeater but at the cost of half the throughput. An audio repeater used in packet service would be a pseudo-digital repeater if the repeated tones were unsuitable for decoded data (say due to phase shift or noise) but served to prevent collisions.
PSK = Phase Shift Keying. A data modulation method in which binary data is encoded as discrete changes in the phase of the carrier signal. In amateur packet, PSK is used mainly on OSCAR satellite data communications. PacComm markets a PSK modem to be used with TNCs.
PSR = Packet Status Register, a newsletter published by Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corp. See TAPR.
PT = PacTor.
PTM = Reported to be a program for satellite downlink telemetry.
Public Domain = Available to the general public at no charge. Information, especially computer programs, that are released for unrestricted use by anyone are said to be in the public domain. Such programs are also called freeware. See also shareware, freeware, hamware.
QRM = Man-made interference on a radio frequency, whether intentional or not. Ignition noise would be a good example of QRM that can affect packet signals since a single pulse could possibly alter a bit and therefore destroy a packet.
QRN = Natural interference on a radio frequency such as lightning crashes, rain or snow static or solar noise.
quality = NETROM/TheNET software allows for a factor called quality to distinguish between various paths joining two nodes. The quality factor is used to select the "best" path for a connection between the two nodes. The quality assigned to each path is determined by initial values set by the node sysop and was originally intended to indicate the relative communications efficiency of each path. More recently however, quality has been used as a route management tool by the node and network sysops and would probably be better named the "route priority factor". R:
R: header line = See header.
R85 = Radix 85. See B2A/A2B.
R95 = Radix 95 is a shareware program written by Greg WD5IVD and distributed by Texas Packet Software. A communications protocol for sending binary data on packet by converting it to ASCII by a known algorithm, splitting the file into small chunks and sending them as regular messages. See also 7-Plus, conversion program.
RAM = Random Access Memory. The volatile memory IC in a computer that holds data only so long as power is applied. A TNC uses RAM for temporary storage, messages and parameters. This may be made non-volatile with the use of a lithium backup battery. There are two types of RAM, SRAM (static RAM) that will retain data as long as power is applied and DRAM (dynamic RAM) in which the data must be renewed periodically to be retained without loss.
RATS = The Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society. RATS is an amateur radio association in New Jersey that is dedicated to the improvement of communications systems in the Amateur Radio Service. RATS is best known in the packet field for ROSE, a networking protocol software written by Tom W2VY and others. For more information on RATS contact: The Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society, P.O.Box 93, Park Ridge, NJ 07656-0093. See also ROSE, ROServer, PRMBS.
real-time = Real-time in packet terms may have several meanings. A real-time repeater transmits the received data at EXACTLY the same time (not counting the phase shift or circuit delay of a fraction of a millisecond) as opposed to a node or digi-peater which will delay repeating the data until the channel is clear (known as store-and-forward). Real-time may also apply to a keyboard-to-keyboard contact in which the data exchange delay does not exceed the users attention span. Non-real-time could refer to a BBS message that could take hours or days to be exchanged.
REBBS = An amateur BBS software written by Roy AA4RE. Also 4RE BBS.
REDIST = A BBS server program written by Chris, G6FCI. REDIST is designed to allow users to send a personal message to a BBS in a distant part of the world and have it converted to a limited coverage bulletin for distribution in that locality. It is written for and can only be used on a FBB BBS. Also a REDIST program having the same function has been written by Hank, WRLI for use with the RLIBBS system.
redundancy path = An alternate path between 2 nodes on a network that can be used if the primary path fails for whatever reason.
regenerating repeater = See repeater, full duplex real-time regenerating.
remote host = A remote host is the computer at the other end of a TCP/IP host to host link. See also host, TCP/IP.
repeater, full duplex real time regenerating = A digital repeater that receives and transmits at the same time (on 2 separate frequencies). The received and demodulated data is fed to the transmitter modulator so that an exact copy of the received data (but cleaned of all noise and distortion from the receiver) is retransmitted at the same time it was received. Such repeaters are useful to create a hidden transmitter free environment on a wide area network. See also digipeater, real-time, pseudo-repeater.
response time = This is the time between sending data to a remote device before an expected response returns to the originating station. Also in the ax.25 protocol, response time is the deliberate delay after a frame is received before the ACK frame is sent so that the ack frame may be piggy-backed on an outgoing data frame if possible.
retry = Retry is the process by which a packet that is sent and not acknowledged will be resent by the sending station. This retry is repeated until the acknowledgement is received or until a "retry counter" reaches its limit and the circuit is terminated. See also back-off, dwait, frack, persistance, collision avoidance.
reverse forward = Reverse forward is a process where a connecting BBS may request if any mail is available to be taken by the connecting BBS at this time.
RLI BBS = An amateur BBS software package written by Hank WRLI.
RM = Reference Model. Another name for the OSI 7 level set of data communication protocols. See also OSI, ISO.
ROM = Read Only Memory. A non-volatile memory IC used to permanently store operating programs in computers and other digital devices. ROMs come in many forms such as masked ROM (permanently programmed by the IC manufacturer), PROM (field Programmable ROM), EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM), EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM), OTP (One Time Programmable ROM), etc.
ROM image = The set of binary data that is programmed into an EPROM or other ROM.
ROSE = RATS Open Systems Environment. A networking protocol software written by Tom W2VY and others from the Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society in New Jersey. It is distinguished from other network protocols such as NET/ROM and TheNET in that the routing tables are manually maintained rather that being automatically set-up and updated as with NET/ROM and TheNET. This results in less overhead on the network since routing information does not have to be broadcast regularly. From the user standpoint, ROSE requires only that you know the ROSE address (derived from telephone area codes and exchange numbers) of the destination node and callsign. For more information on the ROSE protocol, see the downloadable user information files on many BBSs or contact RATS directly. See also RATS, TheNET.
ROSErver/PRMBS = An amateur packet BBS software written by Brian KA2BQE. Although PRMBS was written originally for use on the ROSE network, it is now being used on many non-ROSE systems. See also BBS, ROSE, RATS.
Route stepping = See Node hopping.
router = Any device that can control and direct the routing of datagrams by a node. For example the internal protocol in TheNET X1-J firmware that directs IP datagrams to their proper address according to a manually entered routing table would be an "IP router". See also dynamic routing, Net/ROM.
routing loop = This is a condition where a packet is sent through a node more than once due to routing errors. This can usually occur when one node in a NETROM/TheNET network fails and some of the remaining nodes continue to broadcast its existance for several hours but with unusable routes.
RS-232 = RS-232-C is the Electronics Industry Association (EIA) standard number for the most common interface used between computers. RS-232 data is sent 1 bit at a time with a negative voltage (called MARK) to indicate a zero value and a positive voltage (called SPACE) to indicate a 1 value. Additional bits may be added to separate the characters being sent. Also called serial communications. RS-232 is an asynchronous communications protocol.
RTS = Ready To Send. A control line on a RS-232 port that indicates that the device has data ready to send. On some devices the DTR line is used instead of RTS. On a packet TNC modem header, the RTS line is used as PTT signal for the transmitter. See also CTS, DTR, RS-232, handshaking.
RTTY = Radio TeleTYpewriting. An early mechnical based (now replaced by computers) method of data communication on radio using the 5 bit baudot code. In 1980 8 bit ASCII was also permitted on RTTY in the US. TELEX and TWX are commercial telephone systems using the same techniques as RTTY.
RUDAK = Regenerativer Umsetzer fur Digitale Amateurfunk Kommunikation (English = Regenerating Transponder for Digital Amateur Communications). A packet transponder project flown on board OSCAR 13 satellite. Developed by AMSAT-DL group in Germany.
RXData = Received Data stream produced by a modem demodulator. See also TXData.
SAREX = Shuttle Amateur Radio EXperiment. An educational program in which U.S. Shuttle astronauts communicate with schools using voice and packet.
semi-duplex = A communications system that is full duplex at one end and simplex at the other end. Packet operation through a realtime full-duplex repeater would be semi-deplex operation.
serial port = The RS-232 serial asynchronous communications Input/Output port on a data device such as a computer or TNC.
serial communications = Digital communications in which the data is sent one bit after another on a single wire or or radio link. See also asynchronous, synchronous.
server, server node = A server is any station that provides a service to users other than the owner. This may include BBSs, DxClusters, DOSgates, TheNET nodes, ROSE nodes, TCP/IP hosts, Callbook lookup, HF gateways, etc. Servers are usually distinguished by being large generators of data on the network.
shared, HTS free backbone circuit = A backbone channel shared by 3 or more nodes, all of whom can hear each other either directly on a simplex frequency or with the help of a digital repeater (regenerating or pseudo- repeater) on a full duplex split frequency. The available throughput on the channel is shared between the users and appropriate backoff delay must be used. See also backbone, HTS, repeater, collision avoidance.
shareware = Computer programs that are DISTRIBUTED freely and may be copied by anyone and evaluated free of charge but for which serious users are expected and requested to register and pay a user registration fee. Those who do register the program usually obtain additional documentation, updates, etc as a reward.
SID = System ID. A block of characters exchanged between BBSs when they connect to each other. The SID is used to indicate which software system the BBS is running and what features are available for forwarding.
simplex = A communication method in which communication between two stations takes place one direction at a time regardless of whether the receiving and transmitting is on the same frequency or on split frequency. However in amateur radio terminology, simplex usually means receiving and transmitting on the same frequency. This can lead to confusion, so one should be very precise as to what they mean when referring to simplex (either single frequency simplex or split frequency simplex). Amateur packet operation is normally simplex but most modern TNCs are capable of operating full-duplex if connected to the proper radio system. See also half-duplex, full duplex.
simplex digipeater = a regenerative digital repeater that receives a packet, verifies that it was received correctly, and if appropriate retransmits it on the same frequency it was received on as soon as the channel is clear. Also called a Store-and-forward repeater. Compare with: Repeater, Full duplex real time regenerative, which retransmits the data at exactly the same time as it was received but which does not check for errors. See also digi, duplex digipeater, repeater, store-and-forward.
site hardening = Term for ruggedizing a site by adding backup power, shielding or lightning protection.
site manager = Person(s) who is responsible for node and repeater site access and hardware maintenance.
site sponsor = This is the person or group who is financially involved in acquiring and maintaining node hardware.
site sysop = This is the person(s) who is responsible for the software and configuration of a node site. Also called a node-op or node sysop.
SITOR = SImplex Teleprinting Over Radio. A commercial communications system very similar to AMTOR and used mainly for marine communications.
slime trail = On a NETROM/TheNET node, the node table will temporarily show distant nodes that connect through it. The temporary node will be listed at the beginning of the nodes list and will show callsigns only, no alias. This node list entry is called a slime trail because you can trace back to see the origin and route of the distant node.
slottime = In the persistance method of collision avoidance, slottime is the time delay before repeating the random number persistance calculation. See also persistance, Dwait, CSMA/CA, collision avoidance.
SMTP = Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This is the part of the TCP/IP system which is responsible for sending mail between TCP/IP hosts.
SP = SuperPacket. It is a packet terminal program written by Sigi DL1MEN of the Baycom team in Germany. The latest versions (since ver 7.0) are NOT public domain software and must be purchased from the author.
space = Space, like mark, is one of the two possible states in a binary communications system. On an asynchronous serial system, the start bit is space. On a RS-232 port, the positive voltage level is space.
spot = A DX information message posted on a PacketCluster. A spot usually contains the frequency and callsign of a dx station presently on the air with the call of the station entering the info. SSID = Secondary Station IDentification. A number (from 0 to 15) added to a callsign when a packet user needs more than one packet address. For example, VE2RM-0, VE2RM-4, VE2RM-7, etc are different packet addresses for the various TNCs used at the VE2RM node site. Or a user station may use a different SSID for his personal mailbox bbs and for his keyboard operations.
STA = Special Temporary Authorization. In the USA, a special permit granted by the FCC to operate in a manner not normally permitted. ALL AUTOMATIC HF packet forwarding up to 1993 was permitted under a small number of STAs sponsored by ARRL even though unattended HF operation was not normally permitted.
store-and-forward = The process used in nodes and digipeaters where a packet is received, processed for errors, ect, and retransmitted toward its destination at a later time (seconds later). This is compared with a full duplex digital repeater that retransmits the data at virtually the same time. The term may also describe the BBS forwarding of messages hours or even days after they are entered or received.
stream = When multiple connections are made from the same TNC at the same time, each connection is called a stream.
switch = Another name for a node. See also packet switch, node, ROSE, BPQ, NET/ROM, TheNET.
synchronous = A serial communications mode in which the data bits are sent continuously without character start and stop bits and with an embedded clocking signal for synchronization of the receive circuits. Amateur AX.25 packet radio communications use synchronous transmission of data.
sysop, BBS sysop = The person(s) responsible for the smooth operation of a BBS, including maintaining forwarding routes, redirecting misaddressed messages, checking for illegal or improper messages, etc. See also site sysop, BBS.
TAPR = Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Corp. TAPR is a non-profit organization that develops and promotes amateur packet radio including hardware, standards and publications. TAPR is probably best known for the TNC-2 TNCs (and their widely marketed clones) that were the impetus for the major growth of amateur packet radio. They publish a regular newsletter called Packet Status Register (PSR). For more information on TAPR please contact: Tucson Amateur Packet Radio, P.O.Box 12925, Tucson AZ 85732-2925.
TCP = Transmission Control Protocol. A major element of the ARPA suite. Provides reliable, connection-oriented byte stream service on an end-to-end basis. Runs atop IP and sits at the transport and session layers. See also KA9G, TCP/IP.
TCP/IP = In amateur packet, TCP/IP refers to the KA9Q Internet software or any of its many versions running on a personal computer. It also refers to any of the servers such as JNOS running on the network under TCP/IP control.
TELNET = A presentation/applications protocol in the ARPA suite used for terminal to terminal and terminal to host communications (e.g., remote login). This protocol is used in Packet/Internet gateways to allow connections with other similar gateways around the world.
terminal = A terminal is any data display/data entry device. A terminal usually consists of a CRT (cathode Ray Tube) display and a keyboard connected to a RS-232 serial port. May also be called a dumb terminal because it cannot do any computational operations.
TEXNET = A networking node protocol developed by the Texas Packet Radio Society Inc. and used primarily in Texas and the southwest.
TFPCR = A program written by the Nord<>Link group in Germany that emulates WA8DED Host firmware in a PC.
TFPCX = A driver program developed by the Baycom group in Germany for Baycom and USCC cards when used with SP and GP terminal programs. See also Baycom, GP, SP.
TheNET = A TNC based node operating system developed by Hans DF2AU and the Nord-Link group in Germany. It resembles NET/ROM and there is some dispute as to who was the originator. TheNET is public domain software and has been expanded on by several other groups, for example, TheNET 2.xx from Bill NJ7P and others in Arizona and TheNET X1.x from Dave G8KBB in England. TheNET uses an automatic adaptive routing protocol to set-up and maintain a routing table for the proper transfer of packets to neighboring nodes according to node information received from neighboring nodes on a regular basis. As with any L4 transport layer node, it accepts responsibility for the delivery of the packet to the next L4 node along the path and acknowledges back to the sender the correct reception of the packet. See also NET/ROM, BPQ, TCP/IP, ROSE, NOS, Converse node. Compare with: ROSE node which uses manual maintenance of the routing tables. Compare with: Digipeater, which does not acknowledge to the sender, does not take responsibility for delivery and can only relay a packet to the next digi along the path.
TheNET Plus = TheNET 2.xx versions written by Bill NJ7P.
throughput = The amount of data sent by an originating station that actually reaches its destination in a given period of time. This must not be confused with the channel data rate in baud or bps. Throughput can be calculated either by observation or by taking the original data rate and subtracting out all the wasted time and overhead due to network protocols and TX delays, lost time due to choking and that due to collisions. See also choke, overhead, retries, response time.
Tigertronics = Tigertronics Inc. markets a Baycom modem called Baypac and is an official distributor of Baycom ver 1.5 software. See Baycom.
time-to-live = In a NETROM/TheNET network, all frames are assigned a Time-to-Live number which specifies the maximum number of nodes the frame can be passed to before being cancelled. It is used as a protection against looping endlessly or to control the propagation of L4 routes.
tink = Slang for TNC.
Tiny-2 = A compact TNC manufactured and marketed by PacComm. The Tiny-2 is fully compatable with all TNC2 firmware and is very popular for node operation. The latest version (Tiny-2 Mk2) accommadates 2 different firmware programs that may be switched at will. See also PacComm.
TNC = Terminal Node Controller. This is the smart box that connects the user's terminal or computer to his radio so that he can communicate with other stations. The TNC receives the raw data from the terminal via the serial port, separates it into groups of characters of manageable length, calculates a checksum for error checking purposes, adds an address and originating callsign, and some supervisory information to aid the efficient delivery of the data and queues it up ready for transmission. This datagroup is called a packet. The packet is transmitted by the radio as soon as the channel is perceived to be clear. The received signal from the radio is demodulated by the modem in the TNC and the data transferred to the TNC computer. The supervisory data is stripped off, the checksum used to check for errors, and if correct the data is fed to the terminal via the serial port. Any packets with the wrong address are discarded. All of this activity proceeds transparently to the user. The user only has to specify the connect path, type in the text and hit the carriage return and wait for the response. A user's TNC usually operates with AX.25 level 2 protocol. See also modem, CPU, UART, KISS, PAD.
topology (network) = The study of or the description of the hardware configuration of a network with all its nodes, links and paths. How well a network functions is more related to its topology than to the software used to form a network.
TPG = Toronto Packet Group. An active packet radio group in Toronto, ON. For more information, contact Keith Goobie VE3OY @ VE3OY.
TPK = An amateur packet terminal program for personal computers written by Gerard FC1EBN and others. TPK is designed to run in conjunction with a complementary program on a FBB BBS to give the user an up-to-date listing of BBS messages without having to connect to the BBS. The FBB BBS sends out a UI frame with the header information each time it receives a message or bulletin. The user station monitors the channel in an unconnected mode and records the UI frames so as to prepare a listing of the bulletins available. Any personal messages and any desired bulletins can then be downloaded by the user terminal automatically (often using compressed forwarding). This technique is designed to reduce congestion on the channel where normally many users would connect and download the same long list. See also FBB BBS.
transfer rate = See data rate.
transparent mode = A mode of operation of a packet TNC that allows the sending of all possible binary sequences without fear of actuating commands in the TNC. Designed for the transfer of binary data files. See also converse mode.
transport layer = Level 4 protocol in the seven level OSI computer communications protocol set. It controls the transfer of datagrams between two level 3 nodes via a number of intervening L3 nodes. TTL = Transistor Transistor Logic. The name for one of the types of circuitry (made up of bipolar transistors) used inside TNCs, computers and other digital circuits that operates on logic voltage levels of 5v and 0v. This compares with the serial port RS-232 voltage levels of -12v and +12v. Some TNCs have a TTL level plug to interface with simple computers such as the Commodore C-64. Also abbreviation for Time-to-Live parameter in NETROM/TheNET networks.
turnaround time = The total time that it takes for a radio and TNC to switch between transmit or receive so as to properly communicate with the other end of the circuit. See also TX Delay.
TXData = Transmit Data stream fed to a modem modulator. See also RXData.
TX Delay = The delay between the time the TNC issues a transmit command and the actual packet data starts. The TNC usually sends flags during this period although some node software may send an alternating 0101 bit stream that sounds to the ear like a pure tone.
UA = Unnumbered Acknowledgement frame. A packet frame sent in an unconnected mode to acknowledge a connect or disconnect request.
UART = Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter. This is an IC used in computer devices to convert high speed parallel data from the CPU data bus into a lower speed serial data stream for the RS-232 interface.
UI = Unnumbered information frame. An Information frame without a frame number that is sent as a broadcast during a beacon, nodes broadcast, CQ, TPK item, and other similar frames. It is not acknowledged and there is no guarantee that it will be received. Also called an unproto packet.
unproto = An unproto packet is another name for a UI frame.
uplink = A circuit from a user to a node or BBS initiated by the user. See also downlink.
uploading = The process of transfering data from a user station to a BBS or server. Usually refers to sending messages or large files from a user to a BBS.
USCC = An internal PC packet modem card.
user port or user channel = The local frequency or LAN designated for users to access a network. This channel should have no more than one high volume data generator (such as node or BBS) on it for best efficiency. See also LAN, network, backbone, wide area network.
uuencode/uudecode = A binary to ASCII text conversion program and file transfer protocol originally written for Unix to Unix (uu) data transfers over 7 bit links. See also conversion program, R95, 7-Plus.
VADCG = Vancouver Amateur Digital Communications Group. An amateur packet group in Vancouver B.C. responsible for developing one of the earliest widely used packet protocols called the Vancouver Protocol.
vancouver protocol = An amateur packet level 2 protocol developed in 1979 by Doug VE7APU and VADCG in Vancouver BC. Also known as the VADCG protocol.
VC = See virtual circuit.
virtual circuit = The service provided by a connection-oriented network. Virtual circuit data packets generally carry less header information than datagrams, since addresses have been specified at connection setup time. Amateur packet AX.25 level 2 uses virtual circuits. See also connection-oriented.
WA8DED = Ron WA8DED is a software author who has written the DED-Host firmware used to interface a computer to a TNC and the NET/ROM node firmware that was the first node system in wide use. See also Host mode.
WAN = See wide area network.
weather node = A weather station linked to a packet radio node for remote monitoring of weather conditions by packet radio.
wide area network = A data network covering a large geographical area often linking together many LANs on the same channel. A good (or poor depending on your viewpoint) example of a wide area network is the 145.01 MHz channel used on 2m 1200 bps packet. Wide area networks are also chronically affected by severe hidden transmitter syndrome (HTS) and exposed receiver syndrome (ERS). See also HTS, LAN, ERS. Compare with: LAN which covers a small area and which ideally should have only one node or server on the channel.
wideband packet = Anything faster than 1200 bps (baud). Some would suggest that anything slower than 56Kbps is not wideband or that wideband would be any speed that requires more radio bandwidth than the "normal" vhf fm transceiver used on amateur packet.
WinPak = A Windows based packet terminal program written by Howard KI7CU. WinPak (latest version 1.50) is in the public domain as "Hamware" free to all radio amateurs.
wireline link = A connection between the modem headers of two or more TNCs such that the TNCs communicate via their radio ports but without the internal modems or radios. This allows 2 diode matrices to be connected together to form a "dogbone" or allows two TNC's with different protocols (such as KANODES or ROSE nodes) to communicate with each other at high speed. The communication takes place using AX.25 protocol.
wirelink = Another term to describe a node to node or TNC/node to PC server connection via the serial ports and a diode matrix if necessary.
WRLI = Hank Orelson, WRLI, author of a widely used packet bulletin board. See also RLIBBS, CBBS.
wormhole - An amateur packet circuit between two distant points using commercial communication circuits such as telephone, satellite or microwave links.
X.25 = A CCITT standard protocol for the subscriber interface to a public packet switched network. Consists of two layers, link (level 2) and packet (level 3). The amateur AX.25 protocol is a highly modified version of just the link later of X.25; it does not have a packet layer.
XON/XOFF = Software handshaking using characters such as Crtl-S/Crtl-Q to turn on and off a communications channel. Compare with: RTS/CTS handshaking which uses hardware control lines on the RS-232 port to control data flow.
YAPP = Yet Another Packet Program. A shareware terminal software package to interface a personal computer to a TNC. Contains scrolling, message handling, editing, and other utilities to aid the user on packet. Also a protocol for transferring binary files over radio or telephone links. Written and supported by Jeff WA7MBL. See also Lan-Link, Paket. Z:
#: 4RE BBS = See RE BBS, AA4RE.
7-Plus = A communications protocol written by DG1BBG for sending binary files over packet radio. See also R95, conversion program.

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272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-19-2003 08:27 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Every day the human body is exposed to all kinds of electromagnetic energy. There have been numerous studies that claim that above average exposure to radio waves and microwaves can cause brain function change, sleep disruption, chronic fatigue, immune system impairment and cancer. People are demanding 21st century power loads on equipment that has been around since the turn of the 20th century. With all of the demand and all of the electromagnetic bombardment something has to give.

After man found fire he encountered magic. He saw dust particles that would magnetize to animal fur. He did not quite understand why it happened but knew that here was a power greater than he was. The Greeks first identified electricity (Elektron) by its godlike capacity for action at a distance.

Some 595 years before Christ, electric current was called the "Glory of the lord." It was called the fire within and it piloted great chariots of fire witnessed by prophets like Ezekiel and Zechariah.

It was the same glory that powered up the Ark of the Covenant. A powerful transmitter with the ability to communicate with voices from the ether. The Glory of the Lord or the divine power was beneficial for those worthy of tapping into it. But alas it was fatal for those who greedily used it for selfish reasons.

Quite clearly the Ark carried a powerful electrical charge. The scriptures in the 6th Chapter of 2 Samuel demonstrate the powerful effects of electric current on the human body.

"And when they came to Nachon's threshing floor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for [his] error; and there he died by the ark of God." –The Old Testament

Nearly 2,600 years later a man named Nikola Tesla left his Hungarian home for the United States with only 4 cents in his pocket. He later found work in Edison’s Laboratory.

Tesla and Edison were a match made in Hell. Edison was powering up New York with direct current relay stations popping up everywhere. Tesla however knew that AC was more beneficial because it could be generated and transmitted over long distances.

Tesla left Edison’s lab and decided to take his ideas elsewhere.

George Westinghouse got a hold of Tesla’s Alternating current patent and made Tesla a wealthy man.

In the 1890s, "The War of the Currents" between Edison and Westinghouse pitted DC against AC with long-term adverse consequences obstructing the dissemination of electricity's beneficial effects for human well-being.

Edison claimed that AC was deadly and arranged for it to be used to power New York’s Electric Chair.

Westinghouse survived the electric chair scandal and huge generators were constructed sending electricity for uses in industry and light. However after the 1940’s electricity was beginning to be used for the home. Iceboxes were being replaced with refrigerators.

Radios were being replaced with television. Stoves and fireplaces were being replaced with centralized heating and air conditioning. Televisions were then given accessories like videocassette recorders. Brooms were replaced with vacuum cleaners. Other home appliances included toasters and self cleaning ovens, clothes washers and dryers, dishwashers, personal computers, printers, and fax machines.

Average residential consumption has increased by a factor of ten since 1940. We are saturating ourselves in electricity. Averaging well over 10,000 kilowatt-hours per year. That statistic however is based on consumption in the 90’s.

In the year 2001 there seems to be a new shadow looming over us. An energy crisis that is the result of poor planning and the utter ignorance regarding the use of alternative energy sources.

The State of California experienced power grid drains and virtual blackouts at the end of the year 2000 as computer systems coupled with the eventual Christmas season drain sent power companies into alert status.

There were other companies in the Northwest that just couldn't take the strain in outlying areas and people were seeing the electric bills soar 200 per cent at the end of 2000.

The drain was so high in the Midwest that water wells were unable to use power to pump water into homes. The heavy storm activity and bitter cold that hit the Midwest and the east coast also were taking it's toll as homes would suck power for heating as the ice and snow storms hit at full force.

Here is where we began to wonder if we were wrong in throwing away our Y2K survival manuals. Electricity was something we took for granted and we apparently ignored all of the warnings that this was going to happen.

The required rolling blackouts demonstrated how electricity was taken for granted and how our emotional health is affected by it. People were complaining of high stress levels, depression, and rage.

We need power for necessities, but are we seeing some residual backlash from exposing ourselves to all kinds of EM frequencies?

Does the body have its limits?

Wouldn’t it be obvious that rolling blackouts would cause undo stress and manipulation to the body and the mind?

Think of it.

If I were to place you in a dark room and turn the lights off and on you would probably laugh at first. But do this constantly, Lights on, Lights off and immediately the laughter would turn to annoyance.

Now place that on a larger scale.

It is 90 degrees outside and you have a cool temperature controlled house. You also have an electric oven timed to cook the roast for guests at 2 P.M. You are in your office on your computer writing a spreadsheet due at deadline of 5 PM.

At approximately 1 PM the power goes out. This is due to controlled black outs imposed by the power company. You were aware that this was going to happen but it happened at a crucial time. The Spreadsheet will have to wait for a half-hour.

Or as long as it takes to get the power back up.

Meanwhile in your home the air conditioning has turned off. The oven’s timer has been set to zero. You learn that the data that you entered into the computer was lost. Even with surge protector, a default in your browser caused an illegal operation swallowing up most of the work that you have done.

Your stress level begins to elevate. You still are unaware that the roast will not be cooked, and that your house has now become an oven inside. After failing to meet deadline you arrive home to an uncooked roast, and a hot house.

Your guests will be hungry.

Your stress now is probably optimum. Now this stress continues every time the power goes off and then comes back on. How could anyone plan their day?

Eventually you deal with it because you get used to things.

But are you really dealing with it?

You may think you are handling it but your body may not be.

Having these frequencies turning on and off is tantamount to electronic manipulation.

Even though you say that you can deal with it, that does not mean that someone else can. Some people are more sensitive to EM frequency overload, and unload and may not deal with it in a manner that is healthy.

We have already demonstrated that there has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic appliances that give off EM energies that have an affect on the human body.

You don’t realize it but radio waves and EM energy penetrate your tissues and affect your brain and nervous system. The frequencies we are exposed to are not readily noticed because we have adapted to our electrified lifestyles.

If you don’t believe me, the next time the power goes out in your home make a mental note to write down how you are feeling.

We are exposed to an infinite variety of EM frequencies from below 100 Hz to microwave bands and infrared waves. EM levels generated by devices that many people spend long periods of time with; such as personal computers, cellular telephones, cooking appliances and televisions.

Of course all of these are typically lower than the internal electrical frequency that occurs naturally in the body.

The human body has grown accustomed to these particular frequencies. If all of them are decreased the body feels differently. If they are increased and decreased in sequence the body can react in an irritable manner.

When frequencies in the human brain are tampered with emotional instability may result. This is known as Electromagnetic Manipulation.

This is where the power that was once known as the "Glory of the Lord" anciently, becomes the nefarious control mechanism of the masses. Electromagnetic mind control projects have been used by governments to unleash powers of the mind and to disrupt the body’s own internal electric mechanism.

In 1941 Universal Pictures released a movie called "Man Made Monster" starring Lon Chaney Jr. While video stores will hype the movie as a story of man who electrocutes his victims by touching them, the banality of the description and the ignorance kills the very message of the movie. The story deals with Dynamo Dan, a performer in a sideshow act.

As he is traveling, his tour bus crashes into a power pole sending volts of electricity into it. Dan miraculously survives because he claims that his act includes shoving his fingers into light sockets. He claims that he is immune to electricity. Dr. Lawrence wants to study his immunity while Dr. Rigas believes that if he exposed to pulsed magnetic energy his mind can be controlled. He proposes these control experiments to Dr. Lawrence. Lawrence is horrified and tells Rigas he is mad.

Dr. Rigas resolves that what he is doing is in the interest of pure science and scolds Dr. Lawrence by saying:

"Eighty years ago a man was mad when he spoke of anesthesia, forty years ago the idea of man operating on the brain was madness, today we can hold a human heart in our hands and watch it beat. Who knows what tomorrows madness may be?"

Dr. Rigas experiments on Dynamo Dan by secretly hitting Dan with several bursts of electric shock. He increases it every day until we start to see Dan mentally deteriorate. He becomes depressed, apathetic, and despondent.

He becomes open for suggestion. He begins to do what he is told. Dr. Lawrence, who has been away for a few days notices what Dr. Rigas has done.

Rigas then exclaims

"There he stands! Every impulse controlled by me! Think of it! An army of such creatures doing the work of the world controlled by super intelligence."

There we have the answer as to what tomorrow’s madness may be. Controlling the masses using electromagnetic frequencies.

In 1941 it was all science fiction. In the movies it’s all fantasy. There are people who will testify that mind control experiments have been, and continue to be carried out by our own government.

Could a mass control be in the works? Is it already happening?

Some of the Major Electronic Mind Control Programs that have been carried out include.

Project Moonstruck, 1952, CIA:
Electronic implants in brain and teeth
Targeting: Long range
Implanted during surgery or surreptitiously during possible "Alien abduction" (Aliens cannot Stand Trial)
Frequency range: HF - ELF transceiver implants
Purpose: Tracking, mind and behavior control, conditioning, programming, covert operations.
Functional Basis: Electronic Stimulation of the Brain, E.S.B.

Project MK-ULTRA, 1953, CIA:
Drugs, electronics and electroshock
Targeting: Short range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Local production
Purpose: Programming behavior, creation of "cyborg" mentalities
Effects: narcoleptic trance, programming by suggestion
Subprojects: Many.
Pseudonym: Project Artichoke
Functional Basis: Electronic Dissolution of Memory, E.D.O.M.

Project Orion, 1958, U.S.A.F:
Drugs, hypnosis, and ESB
Targeting: Short range, in person
Frequencies: ELF Modulation
Transmission and Reception: Radar, microwaves, modulated at ELF frequencies
Purpose: Top security personnel debriefing, programming, insure security and loyalty
Pseudonym: "Dreamland"

MK-DELTA, 1960, CIA:
Fine-tuned electromagnetic subliminal programming
Targeting: Long Range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF Modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Television antennae, radio antennae, power lines, mattress spring coils, modulation on 60 Hz wiring.
Purpose: programming behavior and attitudes in general population
Effects: fatigue, mood swings, behavior dysfunction and social criminality, mood swings
Pseudonym: "Deep Sleep", R.H.I.C.

Location: Montauk, Long Island
Electronic multi-directional targeting of select population groups
Targeting: Medium range
Frequencies: Radar, microwaves. EHF UHF modulated
Power: Gigawatt through Terawatt
Purpose: Loading of Earth Grids, planetary sonombulescence to stave off geological activity, specific-point earthquake creation, population programming for sensitized individuals
Pseudonym: "Rainbow", ZAP

Electronic directed targeting of individuals or populations
Targeting: Large population groups assembled
Display: Black helicopters flying in triad formation
Power: 100,000 watts
Frequency: UHF
Purpose: Large group management and behavior control, riot control
Allied Agencies: FEMA
Pseudonym: "Black Triad" A.E.M.C

RF MEDIA, 1990, CIA:
Electronic, multi-directional subliminal suggestion and programming
Location: Boulder, Colorado (Location of main cell telephone node, national television synchronization node)
Targeting: national population of the United States
Frequencies: ULF VHF HF Phase modulation
Power: Gigawatts
Implementation: Television and radio communications, the "videodrome" signals
Purpose: Programming and triggering behavioral desire, subversion of psychic abilities of population, preparatory processing for mass electromagnetic control
Pseudonym: "Buzz Saw" E.E.M.C.

TOWER, 1990, CIA, NSA:
Electronic cross country subliminal programming and suggestion
Targeting: Mass population, short-range intervals, long-range cumulative
Frequencies: Microwave, EHF SHF
Methodology: Cellular telephone system, ELF modulation
Purpose: Programming through neural resonance and encoded information
Effect: Neural degeneration, DNA resonance modification, psychic suppression
Pseudonym: "Wedding Bells"

Electromagnetic resonant induction and mass population control
Location: Gakona, Alaska
Frequencies: Atmospheric phase-locked resonant UHF VHF
Potential: DNA code alteration in population and mass behavior modification
Power: Giga-watt to Tera-watt range
Step-Down reflective frequencies: Approx. 1.1 GHz, Human DNA resonant
Frequency, cellular system phase-lock

Electromagnetic resonant induction and mass population control
Location: Nationwide
Frequencies: Emotional wavelengths, data gathering through helicopter probes following media events - rebroadcast in order to restimulate population emotional levels for recreation of event scenarios. Ref: LE#108, March 1998
Potential: Mass behavior modification
Power: Unknown. Possibly rebroadcast through GWEN network or cellular tower frequencies, coordinated from NBS in Colorado.

As you can see the U.S. Government is already aware of what EM can do to the human brain. These tests are well documented and many of them are still being used to electronically manipulate the human body.

Recently there has been a lot of underground talk concerning the HAARP project. The high-powered Auroral research array in Alaska is being used for communications purposes. The military claims that the energy burst are too small to have any effect on humans.

But is using all of the power and sending a billion watts into the ionosphere good for the environment?

The government says that paranoid conspiracy watchers don’t have to fret.

If we are to take the government at their word then we have to understand that the power levels that they only admit to using with the project are enough to endanger airplanes that fly too close. The side band radiation could knock out pacemakers and cause bombs to detonate.

On a CBS Special "Eye on America" a report was filed showing that The U.S. Department of Defense, Sandia Research, and The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had a joint interest in weather control experiments.

The idea was that a weapon or device could fire a Microwave particle beam at a tornado causing the inside of the vortex to heat up, making it disappear, saving property and lives.

The idea seems legitimate, however there seems to be some drawbacks. Government analysts themselves say that birds and airplanes could explode in mid-flight if hit by a microwave beam.

These types of microwave beam technologies could have been responsible for air crashes like the TWA Flight 800 Crash and Swiss Air crashes all in the general Area of Montauk and Brookhaven Laboratories off Long Island.

A large pulse beam detonated in the general area of Montauk could have been responsible for the deaths of hundreds of Starlings on Tuesday March 5th, 2001.

"No one has any idea what could have killed them," said Virginia Frati, director of the Wildlife Rescue Center of the Hamptons, who went to the scene to look at the bird kill. "I saw a lot of smashed birds," she said.

She estimated that more than 100 dead birds were on the road and the shoulders, so many that any single cause of death would be hard to determine.

Frati said that if the birds had been chased into the path of a truck by a predator such as a hawk, only a few would have been hit. If they had been poisoned, they would have died over a longer period of time, and not all in one place.

Michael Lowndes, a spokesman for the Long Island Power Authority says that the birds were found just east of the LIPA substation in Bridgehampton he said the only way a bird on a power line could be electrocuted is if it were grounded, and it would be highly unlikely that a hundred birds would be grounded at once.

One eyewitness, Francis Hernandez of Sag Harbor, said he was driving in the area about 8 a.m. on March 5th, 2001 and saw birds spiraling down from the wires and onto the roadway. "They were just spinning down," he said. "Falling down like leaves into the road and dying...I've never seen anything like it." He drove back past the same area a few minutes later and saw dozens of birds on the ground.

"They were still struggling. They were hitting the black top but still moving. I picked one up. They were still warm," Hernandez said.

Frati said there were no burn marks on the feet of the dead birds, but that it appeared every one she looked at had blood in the back of its throat.

But the idea that they were poisoned raises a different question. Starlings are commonly found in the company of grackles and red-winged blackbirds, and none of those species were found at the scene.

Some of the dead birds were collected and sent to a state Department of Environmental Conservation lab upstate for analysis. But test results are not expected for several weeks.

The state Department of Transportation, which is responsible for maintaining state roads, removed the carnage.

While there is no official word on the cause of the deaths of these birds the circumstantial evidence and the documented history of the Electro magnetic /Microwave pulse beam testing in the area speaks volumes.

And yet the government reassures the paranoid few that after the ionosphere is cooked, the effects dissipate in a few minutes.

However there are those who argue that the magnetic radiation can remain over an area for a prolonged period of time causing jet stream shifts and mental fatigue on anyone exposed to it.

Dr. Stephen Schneider, who is a global warming expert at Stanford University said that if science is going to continue cooking the sky they had better get funds in place to pay the people who get hurt when anything goes wrong, without arguing whether you did it or not because you'll endlessly argue whether you did it or not.

The HAARP and it’s other cousin projects have been falling under scrutiny because many people believe that it has the potential to control the weather, seismic activity, and the human mind.

Former NASA Engineer Marshal Smith claimed that On February 16th, 2001 HAARP was fired at full power. After the initial report many coincidences occurred as if domino after domino was falling in an eerie tableau.

After the alleged firing, the weather began to change in the northwest. Riots began in Seattle and a major Earthquake hit the Seattle Portland Area. Weather systems were forming in the Northeast and the Southeast and forecasters said that this Noreaster Super storm was about to dump up to 3- 5 feet of snow on the East Coast. It missed New York as meteorologists scratched their heads as the storm temporarily shifted and moved from east to west.

A magnitude-5.3 earthquake rocked Mexico's Pacific coast on Tuesday March 5th 2001, causing buildings to sway as far away as Mexico City and terrifying some residents. No major damage or injuries were immediately reported.

The quake was centered along the coast of Guerrero state, briefly cutting off electricity and telephone service to the resort city of Acapulco, the state-run Notimex news agency reported.

The earthquake was the third to rock the region in two days. Two quakes - the first of 5.4 magnitude, the second of 4.4 magnitude - rattled Acapulco early Monday. There were no reported injuries or damages.

As Mexican nationals were busy cleaning up after their quake, scientists in the Northwest were beginning to raise questions of their own.

Was the Seattle-Vancouver earthquake of 28 February 2001 triggered - accidentally or on purpose - by new, secret electromagnetic weapons?

Scientific observers and short wave radio operators now state that unusual electromagnetic (EM) broadcasts preceded the Seattle-Vancouver earthquake. One researcher who actually monitored the EM broadcasts prior to the earthquake states, "Could the abnormal activity on 3.39 MHz February 16-20 and prior be linked to the Seattle quake? If so, why would HAARP (supposedly funded by U.S. sources) be used to create quakes or other assorted EM mayhem on U.S. property?

After the Seattle quake Scientists are scratching their heads – The Seattle Times reported that Scientists can find no logical reason the 6.8-magnitude quake didn't provoke more violent ground movement.

Quakes in the Puget Sound area in 1949 and 1965 were centered equally deep in the Earth but caused far more damage, and numerous deaths.

In 1994, the Northridge quake in Los Angeles flattened buildings, ruptured gas lines and buckled freeways, killing 72 people. The Jan. 26 earthquake in India collapsed homes and high-rises, leaving 19,000 dead, 8,000 orphaned and 600,000 homeless.

So the real story of the 2001 Earthquake may be not what happened, but what didn't. And why it didn't.

Across the region, ground motion was simply not what scientists expected. In the Seattle area, motion was less than half of what it should have been, given the magnitude, said Steve Kramer, a University of Washington professor of civil engineering.

Nobody questions that it was indeed a 6.8 quake. But the ground motion was more like a shallow, magnitude-5.8 California-style quake, said Kramer. "It's very striking how little has actually occurred in those areas virtually on top of the epicenter," he said.

Alfred Lambremont Webre, the Vancouver-based author of "EARTH CHANGES" interprets events like this earthquake in the startling new light of Environmental War and Global Earthquakes.

"EARTH CHANGES" explores the disciplines of catastrophic geology, seismology, vulcanology, parapsychology, and public interest policy analysis. Webre has developed a new field theory explaining how an age of global earthquakes might be fulfilled – not by earth system mechanics, but by the deployment of a new generation of electromagnetic weapons, used in environmental warfare.

This is Synchronicity when you consider that the Military sent out a press release saying that a new electromagnetic energy particle beam weapon will be used in riot situations. The weapon, called "active denial technology," was developed by Air Force research laboratories in New Mexico and Texas as part of a multi-service program run by the Marine Corps.

When the weapon’s beam is delivered the victim will suddenly feel a burning sensation in the skin. Once again the Military says that this technology has no real long term adverse effects on the body.

"Their claims are a bunch of crap," said Professor W. Ross Adey, professor of physiology at Loma Linda University Medical Center in Loma Linda, Calif.

"We've known that many forms of microwaves at levels below heating can cause significant health effects in the long term." –Professor W. Ross Adey

Possible long-term side-effects could include cancer, cataracts and damage to the limbic system of the human body.

This brings up memories of passages read in books such as "Angels Don’t Play this HAARP" written by Dr. Nick Begich and Jeane Mannining. In their compelling book, theories run amok and the electronic mind control topic once again surfaces leaving the paranoiacs saying "I told you so" when the Military makes such announcements.

Zbigniew Berzezinski in the 1970’s made a statement that sounds eerily similar to the statement made by the fictitious Dr. Rigas in "Man made Monster: "

"A more controlled and directed society will evolve, one where the elite will not hesitate to achieve it’s political goals by using the most modern techniques for influencing the public behavior and keeping society under close surveillance and control." –former National Security advisor under Jimmy Carter, Zbigniew Berzezinski

Still it is important to note that there is no conclusive evidence that the HAARP Project is involved mass mind control. Circumstantial evidence suggests that we are seeing strange weather conditions, turbulent seismic activity, "zombie" attacks by mild mannered people turned terrorists, and now weaponry that sounds like it is from Star Wars.

It gives new meaning to the words "Set weapons for stun!"

The brains of the sensitive are cracking and turning to soup.

We are seeing Kids shooting up schools. Women feeding their babies to dogs and dogs attacking and killing their masters.

Is this evidence of some sort of alien evil? Or is something else triggering this behavior?

The Following Stories were all filed after the initial alleged test firings of the HAARP Project. This does not mean that HAARP is responsible but the coincidences in Weather, Seismic, and human behavior are all following a strange pattern.
· Fifteen year old Santana High School freshman Charles Andrew Williams went on a shooting spree which left two students dead and 13 people wounded. Witnesses allege that Williams was smiling when he opened fire.
· An eighth-grade girl shot a 13-year-old female classmate during lunch at a Roman Catholic school before being subdued by a school administrator.
· 16-year-old Lisa Small allegedly hurled her child into the small yard behind her tenement, where the family's snarling, hungry dog was waiting.
· A 10-year-old boy was found mauled to death by dogs Tuesday (March 5th 2001) morning in a neighborhood park, police said. Authorities said the body of Rodney McAllister was discovered under a pine tree by a passerby. A coroner's autopsy showed that dog bites killed the boy.

With all of this EM frequency, and exposure to weapons, high voltage wires, cellular towers and RF frequencies, can the overall health both mental and physical be changing in the world? I am not dismissing other possibilities but there sees to be this pattern.

Many experts claim that the exposure to high electronic frequencies can cause cancer. A recent article in the London times claims that this exposure can eventually lead to health problems.

Richard Doll is chairman of the U.K. Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation (Agnir). He has spent months analyzing the results of studies on cancer among people living near power cables.

Doll has released a study, which concludes that children who are exposed to high tension EM from power lines can develop Leukemia.

Are these studies a surprise?

For years it has been said that exposure to RF could trigger cancer in humans. The cell phone cancer scare has made the rounds on news shows and the effects of electromagnetic exposure may be playing out right under our noses.

When we hear of depression, mass shootings, strange weather and earthquakes in diverse places we can either believe that it’s a fulfillment of revelation or that perhaps mankind may be doing something to the environment.

If this were a Science fiction story it would sell millions worldwide!

The scary part is that it isn’t Science Fiction. This is real.

We insist on consuming more power, burning fossil fuel, and spewing forth the black smoke to darken the skies arguably creating a global warming affect. Then we scorch the sky in order to create a magnetic field for communication. It unwittingly causes a chain reaction delivering pulses to the Ionosphere and lithosphere, causing the warming of the bathysphere, creating violent storms and strange anomalies in the atmosphere and damaging biology in the biosphere.

It is becoming a lot harder to tune in to the electricity that has been called "The Glory of God." The hum of every appliance, television, radio, computer, light fixture, shaver, toaster, fax machine, video player, and CD player blares so loud that we cannot hear the that still small voice.

The voice that is out there coming up from the ground.

It is the word. The word that sparked creation. The hum that gave man his spirit to be harmonious with the earth.

Now the word says something different in the year 2001.

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272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-19-2003 08:31 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Ladies and Gentelmen:

This is the first installment of many more thousands of pages from my files. In order to understand Haarp and chemtrails you need to know what I know, so I am educating you all first then we will take the field trip!

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Resisting the NWO

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3946 posts, Sep 2002

posted 08-19-2003 10:51 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Mech   Visit Mech's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

Thanks for the info on the U.S. Government mind control projects.

There were many you posted I wasn't aware of.

I'll be definately researching this area further.

It just goes to show you how long the elites have controlled this country.

Zbigniew Berzezinski seems to have blurted it out and made it public.

Keep posting.

[Edited 1 times, lastly by Mech on 08-19-2003]

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posted 08-20-2003 02:02 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Thank you, I will. Folks this is only the start. More to come!

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posted 08-20-2003 11:05 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

LULU: I am surprised that you of all people who has built a reputation on this board as one who is a light bearer and yet when you feel that your supreme authority is being threatened by one who only wishes to help then move on is quite interesting.
You have done an outstanding job in establishing a forum for people to exchange experiences and opinions. And your regulatory ethics are in line with balance.
When I have given all that I can I will leave this forum with knowing that I tried!
If we spend our precious time ranting at each other for silly mistakes or point fingers out of fear and doubt, then you have not accomplished your goal to present an open honest exchange of information that can change lives and save lives.
I respect what you have done here and all I wish to do is honestly help. It may be difficult for you to understand but I am on your side and all others here and I wish no harm to anyone!
Allow me in my time to finish what I promised!

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posted 08-20-2003 12:54 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for halva   Email halva   Visit halva's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I have been arguing in the Council for us to adopt this stance.

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posted 08-20-2003 01:31 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Lt Gen Michael V. Hayden, USAF, Director, National Security Agency
Address to Kennedy Political Union of American University
17 February 2000

Good evening and thanks for coming. I’m excited to be here and at the same time a little apprehensive. It seemed natural to ask my staff to learn about the Political Union and its speakers in order to gauge my remarks towards your interests. After all, we’re in the information gathering and assessment business so it should be easy for us to come up with something that would complement what you’ve heard from other speakers in the series.

…But when I heard that I was following Jerry Springer...well, I wasn't sure that I was going to meet your expectations. Despite what you’ve seen on television, our Agency doesn’t do alien autopsies, track the location of your automobile by satellite, nor do we have a squad of assassins…if we did, I guess that Springer wouldn’t be such a tough act to follow.

I think that the best I can hope for now is to wipe away some of the mystique surrounding the National Security Agency so that you better understand us and how we add value to America.

Today, the world, our nation, and my agency are faced with new challenges and opportunities. I’d like to share my thoughts with you on the nature of those challenges and how they redefine national security, and leave you with some thoughts on how we at NSA intend to deal with them.

Let’s begin with a little history lesson:

A memorandum from President Truman established NSA in 1952, stating that "the communications intelligence activities of the United States are a national responsibility."

Our charter, a Department of Defense document, creates "a unified organization structured to provide for the signals intelligence (SIGINT) mission of the United States and to insure secure communications systems for all departments and agencies of the U.S. government."

Our mission was clearly important, but those were 47 years and 28 years ago, respectively. Our most recent "founding document," an Executive Order from President Reagan, reaffirms both the importance of intelligence and the principles guiding its collection.

Please indulge me a moment while I quote chapter and verse; it speaks to the core of my point this evening: "accurate and timely information about the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons and their agents is essential to informed decision making in the areas of national defense and foreign relations."

"Collection of such information is a priority objective and will be pursued in a vigorous, innovative and responsible manner that is consistent with the Constitution and applicable law and respectful of the principles upon which the United States was founded."

Let me give you an example of the tenacity required to produce signals intelligence. The VENONA Project was a program to examine and if possible, exploit encrypted Soviet diplomatic communications.

Three years after a 1944 cryptanalytic breakthrough, Meredith Gardner, one of the VENONA analysts, was able to read two KGB messages revealing that someone inside the War Department general staff was providing highly classified information to the Soviets.

VENONA translations pointed to over 200 named or covernamed persons then present in the U.S. claimed by KGB and soviet military intelligence messages as clandestine assets or contacts. The messages disclose some of the clandestine activities of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Harry Gold, Klaus Fuchs, David and Ruth Greenglass, and others involved with atomic bomb espionage.

As for the importance of our mission to national decision making of the gravest nature, consider the role signals intelligence played in managing the Cuban Missile Crisis. NSA collected early indications of the arms buildup beginning in Cuba, exploiting Soviet communications concerning ships headed to Havana—ships whose cargo manifests were suspiciously blank.

As early as 1960, American intercept operators began hearing Spanish along with the usual Slavic languages coming from airfields in Czechoslovakia. Not long thereafter, intelligence sources got wind of state of the art fighter and light bomber deliveries to Cuba. Soon, Cuba had a fully functional Soviet-style air defense system, complete with the SA-2 surface-to-air missile which had downed U-2 pilot Gary Powers in 1960. What were they hiding?

After hazardous U-2 flights over Cuba confirmed the presence of Soviet offensive missiles, President Kennedy ordered a naval "quarantine" of the island to stop any further arms deliveries. In the tense situation that followed, it was signals intelligence that confirmed that Soviet ships would not challenge the Americans enforcing the quarantine.

These founding principles of SIGINT helped us to win the Cold War. Competing priorities were not an issue with The Bear to focus our attention. Funding, in light of that clear threat to America, was vigorous and consistent. The environment has changed dramatically but our relevance has only increased. Let’s talk about this environment a little…

We are an agency in change. In this new era, the global environment is no longer defined using a map. You of all people are aware that we’re right in the middle of a technological revolution and it’s that revolution which has made what I say true. To illustrate:

Twenty years ago, how many people outside of government or research used a computer—much less had one at home? Forty years ago there were 5,000 stand-alone computers, no fax machines and not one cellular phone. Today, there are over 180 million computers -- most of them networked. There are roughly 14 million fax machines and 40 million cell phones and those numbers continue to grow.

The telecommunications industry is making a $1 trillion investment to encircle the world in millions of miles of high bandwidth fiber-optic cable. They are aggressively investing in the future. As private enterprise transitioned from the Industrial Age to the Information Age, so must government. So far, the National Security Agency is lagging behind.

For example, you may have heard about the recent network outage at NSA. Due to a software anomaly, our aging communications infrastructure failed and our ability to forward intelligence data, process that data and communicate internally was interrupted for 72 hours. Thousands of man-hours and $1.5 million later, we were able to resume normal operations.

For others, technology is an enabler. It’s an investment that makes their jobs easier. For NSA, technology is the foundation upon which all of our processes rest; it is not an option. The network outage was a wake-up call to our stakeholders and us that we can no longer afford to defer the funding of a new infrastructure. And the challenge doesn’t stop there.

Advancements in telecommunications and particularly the Internet have highlighted a fundamental, but not necessarily new privacy issue. Simply put: how do we balance the need for foreign intelligence information with the responsibility to protect individual privacy rights? What standard do we use as a society to make that determination?

I would note here that all of us who deal with communications have to deal with privacy issues. The system administrator of your campus computer network has to deal with it, so must your Internet service provider, your telecommunications carrier, and law enforcement agencies. NSA, a signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information systems security (INFOSEC) agency, also has to deal with it. We deal with privacy issues in different ways depending upon the type and purpose of activity involved.

You’ve probably all read by now some of the recent press reports on NSA. The Washington Post and the New Yorker Magazine speculate that, "NSA has turned from eavesdropping on the communists to eavesdropping on businesses and private citizens," and that, "NSA has the ability to extend its eavesdropping network without limits." We have also been referred to as, "a global spying network that can eavesdrop on every single phone call, fax, or e-mail, anywhere on the planet."

Those of us who have been around awhile recall hearing about the Church and Pike investigations of the mid-1970's. After lengthy investigations, the House and Senate committees concluded that NSA had not given appropriate weight to privacy considerations in conducting its signals intelligence mission.

As a result, Congress passed a law called the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act regulating electronic surveillance in the United States. Both houses of Congress established permanent intelligence oversight committees to ensure compliance. Moreover, President Ford issued an Executive Order which both authorized and set limits on the conduct of intelligence activities. As a result, the legal and policy context for intelligence activities was forever and dramatically changed.

Now, if you’ve seen "Enemy of the State" you might believe that the NSA’s intelligence gathering mission offers the greatest threat to the privacy of network users. Like many people, you may not be aware of the laws and regulations under which the NSA operates, and the rigorous oversight applied to those operations to ensure our compliance.

So how do we reconcile the government's need for foreign intelligence information with the need to protect individual privacy rights? We do this through a series of procedures outlined in the Executive Order, approved by the Attorney General and the Secretary of Defense, and vetted with the Congressional intelligence oversight committees.

The procedures recognize two important facts: first, there are times when a government needs to collect information about its citizens. The circumstances under which this is allowed to occur either inside or outside the U.S. are extremely limited and well-regulated. Basically, there must be probable cause that a person is an agent of a foreign power and a court must issue a warrant authorizing the surveillance inside the U.S. The Attorney General, applying the same standard of probable cause, must authorize surveillance when the person is outside the U.S. For example, suppose that a foreign country has recruited a U.S. citizen to commit a terrorist act against the U.S. When that person travels abroad, he may be surveilled only if the U.S. government has demonstrated probable cause that he is a terrorist or is aiding and abetting terrorists. Under our legal system, probable cause means that you must have facts that would convince a reasonably prudent person that what you’re saying is true.

The second fact that the procedures recognize is that it is inevitable that NSA will inadvertently acquire information about U.S. citizens in the course of its foreign intelligence collection activities. An example of this might be when we have intelligence of two foreign agents discussing the recruitment of a U.S. citizen. When that happens, the procedures require that NSA "minimize" the retention and dissemination of such information. In other words there are rules imposed upon us by law and regulation that say, "NSA, you may only keep and disseminate such information under a very limited set of circumstances." Circumstances like when the life of the U.S. person is in danger; they are the target of a foreign power or the agent of a foreign power.

So, contrary to some articles written about the Agency, there are rules governing NSA activities. The Department of Justice, the Department of Defense, and the Congressional committees all participate in their formulation and oversight.

But the question remains, how can the American people be confident that we abide by the rules?

First, we train our employees to make sure they know them. Each year our Office of General Counsel conducts hundreds of training sessions specifically designed to maintain a legally sensitized work force -- to make sure our employees recognize privacy issues and know how to deal with them appropriately. If for whatever reason, an employee fails to make his or her annual training, his or her access to intelligence databases is automatically denied.

Second, there is an elaborate oversight process in place. The NSA General Counsel, the Inspector General, and a Senior Intelligence Oversight Board perform this function within the Agency. Within the Executive branch -- the Department of Defense, the Department of Justice and the President's Foreign Intelligence Oversight Board conduct oversight of NSA. On the legislative side, the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence scrutinize NSA's activities as the people's representatives to ensure compliance with the Constitution, law, and regulations.

The bottom line is we are responsible citizens. We know what the rules are and we abide by them. We try to maintain a steady heading. Ironically, at times, we are criticized for being too conservative. My philosophy is a simple one:

We can't be careless or risk takers where the privacy rights of U.S. citizens are involved. We have to do it right.
We have to behave in such a way that the American people can be confident that we are not abusing the tremendous power they authorize us to exercise.
Weapons of mass destruction—especially chemical and biological weapons—are becoming a threat to U.S. soil for the first time. The threat of cyber-attack, or information warfare by our adversaries now has the potential for mass disruption of our nation’s infrastructure. At a time when our national security is at its most vulnerable, it would be more than irresponsible and illegal to take liberties with our authorities. We put at risk our legitimate intelligence mission and that means we put America at risk.

The information we collect and the information we protect is the ultimate opportunity cost. NSA employees do not simply decide on a daily basis how and what they will collect and exploit. We are driven by requirements levied upon us by national level military and civilian decision-makers. Put yourself in their place…

Do you want to understand the intentions of terrorist groups?
Do you want to know these groups have an interest in gaining knowledge of the United States communications and utility infrastructure?
Do you want to know the status of a rogue state’s military capabilities?
Do you want to guarantee our military command authorities secure communications regardless of their location?
Do you want to stop a foreign intelligence officer from penetrating our government networks?
The price tag for new information capabilities is high, but the alternatives are unthinkable. The director of Central Intelligence, George Tenet recently characterized the situation during his address at Georgetown by quoting Pogo – a comic strip by the late Walt Kelly – Pogo said, "we are faced with insurmountable opportunities."

Let me add that we don’t just attack or acquire information. We also protect it, especially national security information. In addition, we cooperate with American industry in setting standards for commercial encryption so that your information is protected.

I noted earlier how much the world is changing. NSA is changing, too. Just look at the very fact of my presence here tonight. Our Agency benefited in the past from the high walls of security we placed around our activities during the Cold War. However, we’ve paid a price. While security and secrecy kept critical information well protected inside, they also kept some important things on the outside from influencing our growth as an Agency. We can no longer afford to operate that way. The knowing few have always been well aware of the fact that NSA is a national treasure. At the same time, they are much less aware of the weight of our challenges at a time when our human and fiscal resources have declined in the past two decades. Moreover, the media and the public have some misperceptions about our business that do an injustice to the men and women who serve tirelessly in their efforts to protect and defend through their cryptologic disciplines.

We are at a historic decision point.

The 21st century represents unprecedented opportunities and more diverse and dispersed threats. Just as we organized to meet the challenges of the Cold War, we must adapt to capitalize on the opportunities of the next millennium.

If we as a nation do not make serious, sustained investments in information security and intelligence over the next five to seven years, we may find that we have missed opportunities and foreclosed options that we will dearly wish we had left available (DCI, 18 Oct 99).

Isaac Asimov said, "it is change, continuing change, inevitable change, that is the dominant factor in society today. No sensible decision can be made any longer without taking into account not only the world as it is, but the world as it will be." He was right—to be successful, we have to be visionary, opportunistic and willing to manage risk as opposed to avoid it.

We need fresh, innovative and creative viewpoints. Viewpoints from people like you -- you all are part of the future for America. As you move into positions of influence in the private and public domains, I encourage you to challenge the status quo, become a champion for continuous improvement and learning, and to not allow personal and organizational precedence to govern your behavior.

I didn’t mean to turn this into a recruiting pitch, but I would be remiss if I failed to mention that we will be aggressively hiring new talent in a variety of core skill areas as we begin a process of revitalizing our workforce. If you’re thinking about public service and would like career opportunities which are challenging, exciting, and rather, well…very cool, I encourage you to examine these businesses we call SIGINT and INFOSEC at the National Security Agency.

Thank you for the invitation and the opportunity to share my thoughts. I’d be happy to take your questions.

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Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-20-2003 01:35 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

August 20, 2003

To: Dr. Ben-Hur
From: John Morgan
Subject: National Security issues

Judah, it has come to my attention that once again you have been attempting to disclose information of a propriety nature to a public forum that has a reputation for questionable authenticity in content. I have been instructed to ask you on behalf of the White House Senior staff and other agencies involved, out of professional curiosity and National Security to cease and desist from disclosing vital information on the project called HAARP and any other vital information that you have direct access to.

We are prepared to re-issue your security clearance, which of course will legally prevent you from further disclosure of information relative to your expertise.

We respect your experience and find you a vital part of our inner circle.

We also are aware of Gaiacomm and its threat to disclose technology that is vital for our National Defense.

Please reconsider our offer and let us know of your decision thru the appropriate channels.

Once a decision has been reached we will offer you complete invisibility from seeking eyes.

Cc: 349.3345849

National Security Agency, Office of Research and Technology Application - R, 9800
Savage Road, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland 20755-6000.

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Senior Member

Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-20-2003 10:18 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Sometimes walking thru a forest you may get a small stone in your shoe, you can either walk with it and put up with the increasing pain or you can stop for a moment and remove the stone and continue the walk with no pain!
I have technology and I am for the eventual destruction of the established order that controls us and lies to us each and every day of our lives. We are humans and you need answers of chemtrails and HAARP and you need them soon! What we will do together is present hard evidence by way of hardware that can demo weather mod, chemtrails, and other concerns that need resolve.
Many of you are suffering every day; people you know and don't know are in death arms because of manmade weapons that creep in the night. Aliens that do all sorts of things to your bodies have abducted some. And the Government will not answer or admit to these abductions and other UFO sightings.
But together we can standup and not only demand but also demo what they have. That is what I will provide in addition to info that can be used to enlighten.
Have Faith in yourselves first then we can take back what was stolen from us all! Our Dignity!
Together we can overcome any problem!
I believe in you all!

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Senior Member

Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-20-2003 10:33 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
This appendix contains several recent statements of communications requirements from the Submarine Force TYCOMs and related commands, such as the Special Operations Forces (SOF). They are indexed as follows:
Requirements Document Page
Submarine Force Future Communications Requirements Enclosure (1) to COMSUBLANT/COMSUBPAC Joint Letter 2000 Ser 00/08606 dated 04 Nov 93 ........................................................................................ E-2
Communications Connectivity Requirements for Submarines COMSUBLANT Letter 2000 Ser 00/00686 dated 3 Feb 94............................................ E-5
Submarine High Data Rate Communications Requirements CNO (N87) Letter 3000 Ser N87/4U656589 dated 24 Oct 94......................................... E-7
High Data Rate Satellite Communications Requirements for Submarines COMSUBLANT Letter 2300 Ser 00/5872 dated 29 Nov 94....................... E-8
Special Operations Forces (SOF) Appendix to Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Submarine Communications Program Summary COMNAVSPECWARCOM Letter 3120 Ser N6/0640 dated 8 May 95......... E-14
Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network Modes, JCS MCM-156-91 dated 30 August 91 ........................................................................... E-21

Enclosure (1) to
COMSUBLANT/COMSUBPAC Joint Letter 2000 Ser 00/08606 dtd 04
November 1993:
1. To aid in preparation for the Navy Program Review (PR) 1995-1999 and Program Objectives Memorandum (POM) 1996-1999, COMSUBLANT/COMSUBPAC request you propose a detailed plan of evolving submarine communications programs to incorporate capabilities that support the shift in submarine mission emphasis. This shift is from a global sea control mission to the support of regional conflict ashore as defined in “From The Sea” and represents support for the Submarine missions of: Joint Strike, Littoral, Surveillance, Space and Electronic Warfare (SEW)/Intelligence, Strategic Deterrence and Sealift/Protection. The following capabilities should be emphasized: Timeliness, rapid TLAM retargeting, reliable connectivity, robust throughput and a common tactical picture.
2. This request is based on results of the CNO (N8) POM wargames and Joint Military Assessment (JMA) process which highlight and need for a shift in emphasis in submarine communications capabilities and requirements. These wargames and JMA results agree with the recommendations of N87 sponsored studies and conferences to define post-cold war submarine communications needs. The thrust of the new emphasis in submarine communications is based on the following general requirements:
a. The need to be fully interoperable and have the ability to send/receive mission related information to/from the JTF.
b. The desired submarine radio room should be a flexible open system designed to be in step with architectures such as Copernicus. Additionally, it should be automated, CSS capable with basedband switching.
c. The need for sufficient data throughput to allow timely transfer of strike and surveillance missions; this includes data throughput capability necessary to support imagery.
d. The need to maintain continuous shipboard record traffic without mast exposure for force management and direction. This system should support all submarine related missions. The “current” (with authorized improvements), VLF/LF Fixed Submarine Broadcast System (FSBS) meets this requirements.
3. The following specific requirements should be addressed in your plan:
a. New antenna design/configuration is a critical need.
(1) Submarine antennas must be designed for operations in all submarine communications bands with primary emphasis on the higher frequency and high throughput regimes of the future (e.g., SHF, EHF, MDR and UHF). The feasibility of using a stealth sail as an antenna should be evaluated.
(2) The submarine antenna suite should be designed to provide assured connectivity across the spectrum of conflict.
(3) Submarine antenna should allow interoperability with joint Task Force Commanders and Joint Operating Force communications systems and other joint architectures.
(4) Our SSBNs require antennas capable of LDR EHF for Ship to Shore report back in a Low Probability of Intercept/Low Probability of Detection (LPI/LPD) environment and a back-up Emergency Action Message (EAM) source.
(5) All submarines will need medium data rate EHF capable antennas with low data rate antennas in the interim. SHF is a requirement for operations with JTF. This will provide both increased data throughput and interoperability. A throughput to support retargeting is required.
b. Submarine inboard communications should allow interoperability with Joint Task Force Commanders and Joint Operating Force communications systems and other joint architectures. Specifically:
(1) A Link 16/JTIDS capability for submarines is required. The bandwidth and capacity inherent in Link 16 will provide future flexibility for submarine connectivity with the JTF. Similarly, improvements in Link 11 with expansion to Link 22 is required for submarines to be interoperable with Navy Battle Groups.
(2) Battle group and JTF interoperability and commonality are of paramount importance. Battle Group unique systems such as a BGIXS enable the submarine to maintain rapid access to the Battle Group Commander and must be supported until replacement by a fleet wide standard. The use of submarine unique systems and equipment should be chosen only when necessary to provide required capabilities.
(3) The accelerated procurement of DAMA capable systems should continue.
(4) Your program plan should reflect radio room support for NTCS/JMCIS installations on all submarines including appropriate interfaces with the submarine’s combat control system.
(5) Our fleet ballistic submarines continue to be the backbone of the national strategic forces. Upgrades should concentrate on interoperability, reliability, open architecture and obsolete equipment replacement.
(6) Standard Navy or joint equipment upgrades should be the primary means of replacing obsolete equipment.
(7) The submarine radio room should support new expansion concepts like a Local Area Network, and Voice, Video, Fax, and Data (VVFD), with interoperable Joint Imagery Format.
(8) Other received/transmitted signals such as IFF and GPS and their expected follow-on systems will remain an integral part of submarine communications capability and must be supported.
(9) Connectivity with SOF communications (e.g., SOCRATES) must be supported by providing onboard equipment and antenna connection points for carry on equipment packages.
(10) Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) reception is required on all submarines, including reception of open ocean SAFETYNET warnings transmitted on INMARSAT-C and coastal navigation warnings transmitted on NAVTEX.
4. The two-site ELF system must continue to the supported.
5. Operational Commander Command and Control Facilities must be kept compatible with submarine systems and JTF systems.
6. Budgetary projections demand that affordability be a key factor in this plan. Procurement strategy should emphasize COTS/GOTS, Life cycle costs and Fleet Training requirement costs. This is a joint CSL/CSP letter.

Ser 00/00686
3 Feb 94
From: Commander Submarine Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet
To: Chief of Naval Operations (N87)
Ref: (a) COMSUBLANT ltr Ser 2000 00/06606 of 4 Nov 1993
1. Reference (a) discussed requirements for the submarine force communications architecture. Since that letter, certain issues have come to my attention, which require further discussion.
2. I now consider connectivity to the SHF link absolutely essential . Battle groups are passing mission essential data and critical information via SHF circuits which have no direct data path to the submarine communication suite. The commanding officer of the submarine must be able, for example, to pick up his STU-III and access the Joint Task Force Commander, as can the CO of a Spruance class destroyer. Additionally, the submarine must be capable of receiving the data transmitted via SHF links. The current plan to put SHF on all Tomahawk -capable CGs and DDGs is a clear invitation to leave the SSN out of the TLAM picture.
3. High data rates are required to enable the submarine to obtain mission essential data within a tactically reasonable period. The current stumbling block to this is the lack of a capability to communicate above the UHF range. Transfer of imagery data highlights this shortfall. Surface ships routinely obtain imagery data at 128 kbps while submarines are stuck at 2.4 kbps with the current ANDVT/CLUSTER NAVE path. For a submarine to obtain a black and white 64 grey shade image (at a relatively low 640 x 480 pixel resolution) at this low data rate requires the antenna to remain completely dry for nearly half an hour. This is not tactically reasonable . At a reasonable data rate of, say 64 kbps (the data rate advertised for MDR EHF), the time required could be reduced to about 45 seconds. This not only greatly enhances the probability the image will be successfully transferred, but frees the submarine to proceed onward with mission tasking.
4. I am concerned that the current plan of record (which I understand is to provide this connectivity to/from the submarine via a "seamless" EHF link) is in trouble. This program depends on several independent elements coming together. Even if all goes without a hitch, we will still be limited to relatively low data rates compared to other forces.
a. First, a constellation of EHF satellites must be placed in orbit (for which there does not seem to be a robust round of support). This minimal constellation is not to be complete until well into the next century. The EHF (MILSTAR) constellation has been reduced to only six satellites, with no polar adjunct capability. Thus, there will be no coverage beyond 65 degrees north (this includes UHF after AFSATCOM is discontinued in 1998). Additionally, the reduced constellation provides no backup in the event of catastrophic failure of any one satellite.
b. Second, the Non-Penetrating Mast (NPM) or some other advanced antenna must come to fruition in order to support Medium Data Rate (MDR). At least we may be able to exercise some control over the mast.
c. Third, the MDR (64 kbps) capability of the system is yet to be developed. The current EHF suites installed in both of our EHF equipped submarines are not MDR capable (installation of the MDR drawer is planned to coincide with launch of the MDR capable satellites). Neither are any current satellites EHF (MDR) capable. The first two MILSTAR satellites in the constellation of the six in stationary equatorial orbits will only be LDR capable, leaving a wide gap in MDR coverage . The plans for satellites to replace these two satellites at the end of their useful life (about 2001) have yet to be defined.
5. A possible alternative for the satellite path would be seamless "cross banding" between EHF and SHF bands for both uplinks and downlinks. This capability would provide a portion of the architecture for full use of the RF spectrum as described for the TADIXS Communications Support System (CSS). However, this would still not provide SHF connectivity with the battle group ships via a line of sight path such as envisioned for the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) system.
6. The SHF demonstration from one of our submarines planned for mid-1994 will utilize a commercially developed antenna housed in the AN/BRD-7 radome, which may provide an SHF data capability of 64 kbps (downlink) and 32 kbps (uplink). We need to keep working on these advanced antenna development efforts and the utilization of commercial equipment.
7. I believe that unless a more forward thinking plan is put forth, the submarine force will become a "disadvantaged user" relegated to secondary missions. With the surface forces having current connectivity at 128 kbps and higher, 64 kbps is already obsolete, and will be more so five and ten years from now.

Ser N87/4U656589
24 Oct 94
From: Director, Submarine Warfare Division (N87)
To: Director of Space and Electronic Warfare (N6)
Ref: (a) CNO ltr ORD 2050 Ser N81/4S6428 26 of 25 Feb 94 (Lightweight SHF Satellite Communications Terminals)
(b) N63 Commercial Satellite Communications ORD
(Draft) (c) USCINCSOC 1612222 Sep 94
1. This letter identifies the omission of attack submarines from the high data rate C4I architecture that supports the joint naval battle force. MILSATCOM connectivity that will provide attack submarines with the information transfer required for Task force operations, intelligence gathering, Tomahawk strikes, and SOF missions should be identified and included in the Navy's program of record.
2. High data rate requirements are specified for Tomahawk capable ships in reference (a), for CVBG support ships in reference (b) and SOF support submarines in reference (c). These operational requirements have been compared to the technical capabilities for SATCOM transmissions to submarine antennas. The results show that data rates of 128 kbps should be provided now, with 256 kbps by 1998, and 512 kbps by 2002. The C4I architecture should support achieving these data rates using mast mounted antennas that are no larger than 16 inches in diameter.
3. In order to ensure that the development of a submarine high data rate antenna is optimized for the Navy's MILSATCOM architecture, it is requested that the plan for submarine high data rate connectivity be formalized by 15 January 1995.
4. My points of contact are CDR E. R. Jablonski, N872E and LCDR N. P. Moe, N872E4, (703) 697-2008.
By direction

Ser 00/5872
29 Nov 94
From: Commander, Submarine Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet
To: Commander in Chief, U. S. Atlantic Fleet
Ref: (a) CNO ltr ORD 2050 Ser N81/4S642826 of 25 Feb 94
(b) N63 Commercial Satellite Communications ORD (Draft)
(c) USCINCSOC 1612222 Sep 94
(d) CNO message 191715Z Oct 94
Encl: (1) High Data Rate Requirements
(2) Consolidate Submarine H DR Communications Requirements
(3) High Data Rate Mission Drivers
1. Reference (a) specifies High Data Rate (HDR) communications requirements for Tomahawk capable ships. Reference (b) discusses emerging High Data Rate Satellite communications needs for CVBG support ships. Reference (c) specifies HDR communications requirements for SOF support submarines. Reference (d) requested Fleet input on HDR requirements fro submarines.
2. Enclosures (1) through (3) provide the HDR communications requirements to meet the current and anticipated submarine force needs from present to the year 2006. I consider HDR connectivity to be absolutely essential in order to properly carry out the submarine forces assigned missions. Battle groups are passing mission essential data and critical information via SHF circuits which have no direct data path to the submarine. The commanding officer of the submarine must be able, for example, to pick up his STU-III and access the Joint Task Force Commander. Additionally, the submarine must be capable of receiving data transmitted via HDR links. The current plan to put SHF on Tomahawk-capable platforms needs to include SSNs if the are to remain a viable strike warfare platform. Submarines are essential components of BG/TG commands and need to be able to communicate with the BG/TG commander on both tactical and non-tactical circuits including communications paths identified in reference (b).
3. The transfer of imagery data highlights the problem with current submarine communications systems. for a submarine to obtain a black and white 64 gray shade image (at a relatively low 640 x 480 pixel resolution) with its current data rate capability of 2.4 kbps requires the antenna to remain completely dry for nearly half an hour. This is not tactically reasonable . Higher data rates are needed to ensure images are successfully transferred and to free the submarine to proceed with mission tasking.
4. The HDR communications requirements identified in enclosures (1) through (3) represent the current and future needs of the submarine force. Enclosures (2) and (3) were a result of a joint effort by COMSUBPAC and COMSUBLANT.
5. COMSUBLANT point of contact is CDR D. L. Olberding, (804) 445-6633, DSN 564-6633.
Copy to:
CNO (N87)
1. COMSPAWARSYSCOM (PMW-173) and COMSUBDEVRON Twelve hosted a submarine high data rate requirements working group in August 1994. Results of this working group are graphically displayed in enclosures (2) and (3). Additional information requested in reference (d) is enclosed below.
2. Deployers requiring simultaneous support . Baseline planning requires that a minimum of nine submarines deploy within COMSUBLANT area of responsibility simultaneously.
a. JTG/BG support - minimum of four submarines are deployed to support JTG/BG's (3 Med/1 Caribbean).
b. SPECWAR - a minimum of one submarine is deployed in support of SPECWAR (Med).
c. Surveillance - a minimum of four submarines are deployed in support of surveillance operations (various locations).
3. Potential operating areas . Mission requirements continually place submarines in all oceans of the world, thus dictating the necessity for full time on-demand worldwide coverage in all geographic AORs. Additionally, the submarine fleet has requirements for polar satellite coverage.
- The EHF (MILSTAR) constellation is not to be complete until well into the next century and will comprise only 6 satellites, with no polar adjunct capability. This will leave no EHF converge beyond 65 degrees North and no UHF coverage after AFSATCOM is discontinued in 1998. Additionally, the reduced constellation provides no backup in the event of catastrophic failure of any one satellite.
4. Connectivity . Interoperable connectivity is required among fleet units, Joint forces, Allied forces, Navy C4I Commands and theater shore communication activities.
5. Information requirements . Enclosures (2) and (3) graphically display minimum data rate requirements and mission areas.
6. System responsiveness . Minimum data rates established were based on the submarine maintaining its stealth posture by minimizing mast exposure while at periscope depth. The system must be structured that mast exposure is limited to between one and five minutes.
7. Protection . The high data rate system should have a low probability of intercept (LPI)/low probability of detection (LPD) and should be jam resistant. Spread spectrum waveforms may meet the requirement for LPI/LPD. Jam resistant throughput should meet the minimum data rate requirements as described in enclosure (2).

Ser N6/0640
8 May 95
From: Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command
To: Commander in Chief, U.S. Special Operations Comm and (SOJ6-I)
Ref: (a) COMSPAWARSYSCOM C4I mtg. of 8 and 9 Mar 95
(b) CNO Submarine Communications Program Summary Document
Encl: (1) SOF communications Appendix to CNO Submarine Communications Program Summary (Draft)
1. Reference (a) requested SOF communications requirements for inclusion into reference (b) by 25 May 1995. Enclosure (1) is a draft of SOF communications requirements.
2. Upon USCINCSOC approval of enclosure (1) COMNAVSPECWARCOM will forward requirements to COMSPAWARSYSCOM (PMW-173) for inclusion into reference (b).
3. COMNAVSPECWARCOM point of contact is LT. Long, DSN 577-2237 or commercial (619) 437-2237.
By direction
Copy to:
The current unstable world environment has created a greater need for highly trained, and superbly equipped Special Operations Forces (SOF). The multiple threat scenario now emerging poses an increasing requirement for timely, accurate information to support the varied, diverse roles and missions assigned to United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Given the draw-down of forces and reduced Department of Defense (DOD) budget, SOF must rely on commercial development to maintain state-of-the-art command, control, communications computers, and intelligence (C4I) capabilities and to satisfy operational and intelligence information requirements.
SOF are surgically precise, penetration-and-strike forces capable of responding to limited, specialized contingencies across the full range of military operations with stealth, speed, and audacity. The traditional roles of SOF include performing as warrior-diplomats who influence, advise, and train foreign indigenous forces. Becoming more and more the force of choice SOF must be equipped and trained to perform a wide variety of diverse special operations missions.
To carry out these missions, SOF are drawn from the following USSOCOM components:
- U.S. Army Special Operations Command
- Naval Special Warfare Command
- U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command - Joint Special Operations Command
The primary purpose of the USSOCOM C4I strategy is to provide the finest support possible to the warfighter. To ensure the required C4I support is available, USSOCOM performed a detailed bottom-up review of requirements resulting in a comprehensive C4I strategy.
This strategy is designed to yield direct benefits by giving SOF state-of-the-are technology through improvements to existing inventory. New developments will be pursued only when necessary Direct operational support is the product of this strategy Access to the infosphere will be transparent to the user allowing operational elements to deploy anywhere in the world with command and control connectivity assured from garrison or deployed locations. The intent is to enable exploitation of the infosphere at the lowest possible tactical level. As stated in the C4I for the Warrior paradigm: “The infosphere contains the total combination of information sources, fusion centers, and distribution systems that represent the C4I resources a warfighter needs to pursue his operational objective. “The desktop or tactical computer, in the hands of the special operator, will become a gateway into the infosphere.
The USSOCOM C4I strategy is composed of C4I doctrinal principles, a new open and flexible C4I architecture, and a redesigned investment strategy.
Special operations C4I fundamental principles are: Global, Secure, Mission Tailored, Value Added, and Joint. These five principles ensure successful C4I support to special operation. Global. C4I systems support special operators worldwide across the full range of military operations.
Secure. Humans are more important that hardware. C4I must never compromise a live team on the ground or contribute to mission failure. Additionally, all submarine operations involving SOF must be conceptualized and executed in such a way that protects the most vulnerable component of the mission, namely the special operations forces. Hostile, or potentially hostile, systems which pose no threat to the submarine may pose a significant threat to special operations. Operational doctrine must ensure that new systems do not alert a potential enemy to impending actions by SOF.
Mission Tailored. SOF cannot be mass produced. C4I systems must deploy in relation to the projected operational environment. Value Added. Quality is better that quantity. SOF must push new C4I technologies, equipment, and techniques to maintain the competitive edge.
Joint. Competent SOF cannot be created after emergencies. Special operation C4I is joint and supports joint, combined and coalition operations.
The special operations C4I architecture is seamless, robust, automated, standards compliant, and utilizes the full spectrum. The architecture allows access to the infosphere to be pushed down to the lowest possible level. It also interlaces national and commercial C4I architectures with current special operation functional architectures. With proper security measures, use of commercial and host nation telecommunications structures are encouraged. The C4I structure uses National Security Agency (NSA) approved technology, procedures, and safeguards to ensure operational elements are not compromised or exploited by an enemy. To be effective, the special operations C4I architecture must be relevant to today’s conditions and adaptable to those anticipated into the 21st Century.

1. HF Requirements (2-50 MHz)
a. Special Mission Radio (SMRS). The principle SMRS components are the AN/PRC-137 long-range manpack radio (MPR), its associated Digital Messages Entry Device (DMED), and the AN/TRQ-43 transportable base station (TBS). The SMRS components will be enhanced with new features and capabilities, including the implementation of the Interlocking Base Station (IBS) network. SMRS is optimized for the special reconnaissance mission but may be employed on any special operations missions requiring long-range, low-observable, or highly reliable data communication. The SMRS communications system will supplement and interoperate with other SOF C4I systems. For SOF/SUB application the MPR and DMED may be used.
b. All other HF radio applications will use Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) or straight HF, data, voice LPI/D.
2. VHF Requirement
a. Low Band (30-88 MHz). LOS communications used primarily with OF ashore and air assets. This requirement may be employed with or without SINCGARS, data, voice, LPI/D.
b. High Band (116-149 MHz). LOS communications used primarily with SOF ashore and air assets. This requirement may be employed with or without SINCGARS, data, voice, LPI/D.
c. Inter Team Radio (136-174 MHz). LOS communications to include LPI/D used between SOF Commander onboard and teams ashore. This concept employs a base station (FASCINATOR COMSEC equipment) onboard the submarine . 3. UHF Requirement
a. LOS. LOS communications used primarily with SOF ashore and air assets. This requirement may be employed with or without HAVEQUICK . b. Inter Team Radio (403-430 MHz). LOS communications to include LPI/D used between SOF commander onboard and teams ashore. This concept employs a base station (FASCINATOR COMSEC equipment) onboard the submarine.
c. SATCOM (225-499 MHz). Will be used in the 5 kHz (NB) and 25 kHz (WB) mode. DAMA and non-DAMA will be used.

4. SHF Requirement
a. Interoperability with national/DOD databases and intelligence systems. The Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS) access could be provided though a shared use of submarine assets or though an ADP terminal brought onboard by SOF operators.
b. Increased Data Rate to support imagery and video to and from SOF forces onboard.
c. TRI-Band. Interoperability between Ku, X, and C band required at the JSOTF and TG and TU level.
5. EHF REQUIREMENT. Interoperability with JSOTF afloat or shore.
a. Connectivity to an imagery and information exchange system is required. JDISS is the DOD Intelligence Information System (DODIIS) standard for accessing national and DOD intelligence databases. A laptop JDISS terminal could satisfy this requirement for the SOF operator. Additionally, connectivity to digital camera imagery transmissions is a requirement for the SOF operator to receive near real time operational updates.
b. Currently, the Naval Special Warfare Information Exchange System (NSWIXS) prototype provides the capability to transfer information to/from SEAL operators. This data stream could be a candidate to satisfy imagery and information transfer requirements. Operating in a personal computer environment, the NSWIXS provides the SOF operator the ability to push and pull information as necessary. NSWIXS can operate over all frequency mediums. Radiant TIN compression utilized with NSWIXS makes it very effective for passing imagery. NSWIXS and Radiant TIN are currently in the prototype stage.
c. Provide a state of the art digital imaging system. The system must be capable of imagery collection and dissemination in a digital format which can be interfaces and integrated with other SOF system applications. Currently available is the Digital Video Imaging Terminal (DVITS) which has an RS232 port capable of transmitting or receiving up to 32kpbs.
These requirements include voice, VTC, PERVIZ, Photo nics, UAV, file transfer, JDISS, ATO, broadcast, IXS, naval message, OP notes. Video is the largest HDR driver with bandwidths of 128 kbps to T1 connectivity. 8. Remote SOF C2. This concept would allow simultaneous utilization of the submarine’s antenna assets by submarine and SOF operators.
1. A two phased approac h needs to be considered. Short term and long term options are provided below. a. Short Term. Current DDS/SDV configured submarines that are not scheduled for SCSS upgrade require installation of SOF equipment. Current configuration consists of PRC-104 (HF Non-ALE), PSC-7 (UHF SATCOM Non-DAMA) KY-57, KY99, ADC (data packet switching device), stand alone PC, and AM-7175 (power supply). This set up is installed on the USS KAMEHAMEHA. It is desired to make this permanent alteration for both east and west coast DDS/SDV submarines.
b. Long Term. For future requirements SCSS should include SOF communications capabilities. these capabilities include HF ALE, VHF SINCGARS, UHF HAVEQUICK , UHF SATCOM 5/25KHZ DAMA, and ADC. If these capabilities exist inherent to the SCSS then SOF would utilize submarine equipment on a not to interfere basis. However, if the SCSS cannot accommodate these capabilities then space, weight, and power would have to be available for a carry on SOF C4I capability.

Reply ZIP Code:
20318-0300 MCM-156-91
30 August 1991
MEMORANDUM FOR: Chief of Staff, US Army
Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Staff, US Air Force
Commander in Chief, US Atlantic Command
Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command
Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command
Subject: Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network Modes
1. In order to provide a solid basis for operational and acquisition planning for the VLF/LF portion of the Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network (MEECN), the following mode architecture is promulgated:
CJCS Modes 15, 9, and 9 MMPM (MEECN Message Processing Mode) are designated as the standard CJCS interoperable MEECN modes for Emergency Action Message (EAM) dissemination at VLF/LF. When the High Data Rate mode reaches Full Operational Capability, it will be included as an interoperable MEECN mode. CJCS Mode 8 (although still used by SAC for timing) and Mode 29 are deleted as interoperable MEECN modes. The above changes will be included in future updates of Emergency Action Procedures of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Volume VII.
2. The Joint Staff point of contact is Lieutenant Colonel Harvey Le Cato, USAF, DSN 224-5651.
For the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff:
Lieutenant General, USAF
Director, Joint Staff

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U.N.T.S. No. 11851, vol. 828, pp. 305-388
Articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 4bis | 4ter | 4quater | 5 | 5bis | 5ter | 5quater | 5quinquies6 | 6bis | 6ter | 6quater | 6quinquies | 6sexies | 6septies | 7 | 7bis 8 | 9 | 10 | 10bis | 10ter | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30

Article 1
(1) The countries to which this Convention applies constitute a Union for the protection of industrial property.
(2) The protection of industrial property has as its object patents, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks, service marks, trade names, indications of source or appellations of origin, and the repression of unfair competition.
(3) Industrial property shall be understood in the broadest sense and shall apply not only to industry and commerce proper, but likewise to agricultural and extractive industries and to all manufactured or natural products, for example, wines, grain, tobacco leaf, fruit, cattle, minerals, mineral waters, beer, flowers, and flour.
(4) Patents shall include the various kinds of industrial patents recognized by the laws of the countries of the Union, such as patents of importation, patents of improvement, patents and certificates of addition, etc.
Article 2
(1) Nationals of any country of the Union shall, as regards the protection of industrial property, enjoy in all the other countries of the Union the advantages that their respective laws now grant, or may hereafter grant, to nationals; all without prejudice to the rights specially provided for by this Convention. Consequently, they shall have the same protection as the latter, and the same legal remedy against any infringement of their rights, provided that the conditions and formalities imposed upon nationals are complied with.
(2) However, no requirement as to domicile or establishment in the country where protection is claimed may be imposed upon nationals of countries of the Union for the enjoyment of any industrial property rights.
(3) The provisions of the laws of each of the countries of the Union relating to judicial and administrative procedure and to jurisdiction, and to the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent, which may be required by the laws on industrial property are expressly reserved.
Article 3
Nationals of countries outside the Union who are domiciled or who have real and effective industrial or commercial establishments in the territory of one of the countries of the Union shall be treated in the same manner as nationals of the countries of the Union.
Article 4
(1) Any person who has duly filed an application for a patent, or for the registration of a utility model, or of an industrial design, or of a trademark, in one of the countries of the Union, or his successor in title, shall enjoy, for the purpose of filing in the other countries, a right of priority during the periods hereinafter fixed.
(2) Any filing that is equivalent to a regular national filing under the domestic legislation of any country of the Union or under bilateral or multilateral treaties concluded between countries of the Union shall be recognized as giving rise to the right of priority.
(3) By a regular national filing is meant any filing that is adequate to establish the date on which the application was filed in the country concerned, whatever may be the subsequent fate of the application.
B. Consequently, any subsequent filing in any of the other countries of the Union before the expiration of the periods referred to above shall not be invalidated by reason of any acts accomplished in the interval, in particular, another filing, the publication or exploitation of the invention, the putting on sale of copies of the design, or the use of the mark, and such acts cannot give rise to any third-party right or any right of personal possession. Rights acquired by third parties before the date of the first application that serves as the basis for the right of priority are reserved in accordance with the domestic legislation of each country of the Union.
(1) The periods of priority referred to above shall be twelve months for patents and utility models, and six months for industrial designs and trademarks.
(2) These periods shall start from the date of filing of the first application; the day of filing shall not be included in the period.
(3) If the last day of the period is an official holiday, or a day when the Office is not open for the filing of applications in the country where protection is claimed, the period shall be extended until the first following working day.
(4) A subsequent application concerning the same subject as a previous first application within the meaning of paragraph (2), above, filed in the same country of the Union, shall be considered as the first application, of which the filing date shall be the starting point of the period of priority, if, at the time of filing the subsequent application, the said previous application has been withdrawn, abandoned, or refused, without having been laid open to public inspection and without leaving any rights outstanding, and if it has not yet served as a basis for claiming a right of priority. The previous application may not thereafter serve as a basis for claiming a right of priority.
(1) Any person desiring to take advantage of the priority of a previous filing shall be required to make a declaration indicating the date of such filing and the country in which it was made. Each country shall determine the latest date on which such declaration must be made.
(2) These particulars shall be mentioned in the publications issued by the competent authority, and in particular in the patents and the specifications relating thereto.
(3) The countries of the Union may require any person making a declaration of priority to produce a copy of the application (description, drawings, etc.) previously filed. The copy, certified as correct by the authority which received such application, shall not require any authentication, and may in any case be filed, without fee, at any time within three months of the filing of the subsequent application. They may require it to be accompanied by a certificate from the same authority showing the date of filing, and by a translation.
(4) No other formalities may be required for the declaration of priority at the time of filing the application. Each country of the Union shall determine the consequences of failure to comply with the formalities prescribed by this Article, but such consequences shall in no case go beyond the loss of the right of priority.
(5) Subsequently, further proof may be required.
Any person who avails himself of the priority of a previous application shall be required to specify the number of that application; this number shall be published as provided for by paragraph (2), above.
(1) Where an industrial design is filed in a country by virtue of a right of priority based on the filing of a utility model, the period of priority shall be the same as that fixed for industrial designs.
(2) Furthermore, it is permissible to file a utility model in a country by virtue of a right of priority based on the filing of a patent application, and vice versa.
F. No country of the Union may refuse a priority or a patent application on the ground that the applicant claims multiple priorities, even if they originate in different countries, or on the ground that an application claiming one or more priorities contains one or more elements that were not included in the application or applications whose priority is claimed, provided that, in both cases, there is unity of invention within the meaning of the law of the country.
With respect to the elements not included in the application or applications whose priority is claimed, the filing of the subsequent application shall give rise to a right of priority under ordinary conditions.
(1) If the examination reveals that an application for a patent contains more than one invention, the applicant may divide the application into a certain number of divisional applications and preserve as the date of each the date of the initial application and the benefit of the right of priority, if any.
(2) The applicant may also, on his own initiative, divide a patent application and preserve as the date of each divisional application the date of the initial application and the benefit of the right of priority, if any. Each country of the Union shall have the right to determine the conditions under which such division shall be authorized.
H. Priority may not be refused on the ground that certain elements of the invention for which priority is claimed do not appear among the claims formulated in the application in the country of origin, provided that the application documents as a whole specifically disclose such elements.
(1) Applications for inventors' certificates filed in a country in which applicants have the right to apply at their own option either for a patent or for an inventor's certificate shall give rise to the right of priority provided for by this Article, under the same conditions and with the same effects as applications for patents.
(2) In a country in which applicants have the right to apply at their own option either for a patent or for an inventor's certificate, an applicant for an inventor's certificate shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Article relating to patent applications, enjoy a right of priority based on an application for a patent, a utility model, or an inventor's certificate.
Article 4bis
(1) Patents applied for in the various countries of the Union by nationals of countries of the Union shall be independent of patents obtained for the same invention in other countries, whether members of the Union or not.
(2) The foregoing provision is to be understood in an unrestricted sense, in particular, in the sense that patents applied for during the period of priority are independent, both as regards the grounds for nullity and forfeiture, and as regards their normal duration.
(3) The provision shall apply to all patents existing at the time when it comes into effect.
(4) Similarly, it shall apply, in the case of the accession of new countries, to patents in existence on either side at the time of accession.
(5) Patents obtained with the benefit of priority shall, in the various countries of the Union, have a duration equal to that which they would have, had they been applied for or granted without the benefit of priority.
Article 4ter
The inventor shall have the right to be mentioned as such in the patent.
Article 4quater
The grant of a patent shall not be refused and a patent shall not be invalidated on the ground that the sale of the patented product or of a product obtained by means of a patented process is subject to restrictions or limitations resulting from the domestic law.
Article 5
(1) Importation by the patentee into the country where the patent has been granted of articles manufactured in any of the countries of the Union shall not entail forfeiture of the patent.
(2) Each country of the Union shall have the right to take legislative measures providing for the grant of compulsory licenses to prevent the abuses which might result from the exercise of the exclusive rights conferred by the patent, for example, failure to work.
(3) Forfeiture of the patent shall not be provided for except in cases where the grant of compulsory licenses would not have been sufficient to prevent the said abuses. No proceedings for the forfeiture or revocation of a patent may be instituted before the expiration of two years from the grant of the first compulsory license.
(4) A compulsory license may not be applied for on the ground of failure to work or insufficient working before the expiration of a period of four years from the date of filing of the patent application or three years from the date of the grant of the patent, whichever period expires last; it shall be refused if the patentee justifies his inaction by legitimate reasons. Such a compulsory license shall be non-exclusive and shall not be transferable, even in the form of the grant of a sub-license, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which exploits such license.
(5) The foregoing provisions shall be applicable, mutatis mutandis, to utility models.
B. The protection of industrial designs shall not, under any circumstance, the subject to any forfeiture, either by reason of failure to work or by reason of the importation of articles corresponding to those which are protected.
(1) If, in any country, use of the registered mark is compulsory, the registration may be cancelled only after a reasonable period, and then only if the person concerned does not justify his inaction.
(2) Use of a trademark by the proprietor in a form differing in elements which do not alter the distinctive character of the mark in the form in which it was registered in one of the countries of the Union shall not entail invalidation of the registration and shall not diminish the protection granted to the mark.
(3) Concurrent use of the same mark on identical or similar goods by industrial or commercial establishments considered as co-proprietors of the mark according to the provisions of the domestic law of the country where protection is claimed shall not prevent registration or diminish in any way the protection granted to the said mark in any country of the Union, provided that such use does not result in misleading the public and is not contrary to the public interest.
D. No indication or mention of the patent, of the utility model, of the registration of the trademark, or of the deposit of the industrial design, shall be required upon the goods as a condition of recognition of the right to protection.
Article 5bis
(1) A period of grace of not less than six months shall be allowed for the payment of the fees prescribed for the maintenance of industrial property rights, subject, if the domestic legislation so provides, to the payment of a surcharge.
(2) The countries of the Union shall have the right to provide for the restoration of patents which have lapsed by reason of non-payment of fees.
Article 5rer
In any country of the Union the following shall not be considered as infringements of the rights of a patentee:
1. the use on board vessels of other countries of the Union of devices forming the subject of his patent in the body of the vessel, in the machinery, tackle, gear and other accessories, when such vessels temporarily or accidentally enter the waters of the said country, provided that such devices are used there exclusively for the needs of the vessel;
2. the use of devices forming the subject of the patent in the construction or operation of aircraft or land vehicles of other countries of the Union, or of accessories of such aircraft or land vehicles, when those aircraft or land vehicles temporarily or accidentally enter the said country.
Article 5quater
When a product is imported into a country of the Union where there exists a patent protecting a process of manufacture of the said product, the patentee shall have all the rights, with regard to the imported product, that are accorded to him by the legislation of the country of importation, on the basis of the process patent, with respect to products manufactured in that country.
Article 5quinquies
Industrial designs shall be protected in all the countries of the Union.
Article 6
(1) The conditions for the filing and registration of trademarks shall be determined in each country of the Union by its domestic legislation.
(2) However, an application for the registration of a mark filed by a national of a country of the Union in any country of the Union may not be refused, nor may a registration be invalidated, on the ground that filing, registration, or renewal, has not been effected in the country of origin.
(3) A mark duly registered in a country of the Union shall be regarded as independent of marks registered in the other countries of the Union, including the country of origin.
Article 6bis
(1) The countries of the Union undertake, ex officio if their legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested party, to refuse or to cancel the registration, and to prohibit the use, of a trademark which constitutes a reproduction, an imitation, or a translation, liable to create confusion, of a mark considered by the competent authority of the country of registration or use to be well known in that country as being already the mark of a person entitled to the benefits of this Convention and used for identical or similar goods. These provisions shall also apply when the essential part of the mark constitutes a reproduction of any such well-known mark or an imitation liable to create confusion therewith.
(2) A period of at least five years from the date of registration shall be allowed for requesting the cancellation of such a mark. The countries of the Union may provide for a period within which the prohibition of use must be requested.
(3) No time limit shall be fixed for requesting the cancellation or the prohibition of the use of marks registered or used in bad faith.
Article 6ter
(a) The countries of the Union agree to refuse or to invalidate the registration, and to prohibit by appropriate measures the use, without authorization by the competent authorities, either as trademarks or as elements of trademarks, of armorial bearings, flags, and other State emblems, of the countries of the Union, official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty adopted by them, and any imitation from a heraldic point of view.
(b) The provisions of subparagraph (a), above, shall apply equally to armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations of which one or more countries of the Union are members, with the exception of armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, that are already the subject of international agreements in force, intended to ensure their protection.
(c) No country of the Union shall be required to apply the provisions of subparagraph (b), above, to the prejudice of the owners of rights acquired in good faith before the entry into force, in that country, of this Convention. The countries of the Union shall not be required to apply the said provisions when the use or registration referred to in subparagraph (a), above, is not of such a nature as to suggest to the public that a connection exists between the organization concerned and the armorial bearings, flags, emblems, abbreviations, and names, or if such use or registration is probably not of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the existence of a connection between the user and the organization.
(2) Prohibition of the use of official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty shall apply solely in cases where the marks in which they are incorporated are intended to be used on goods of the same or a similar kind.
(a) For the application of these provisions, the countries of the Union agree to communicate reciprocally, through the intermediary of the International Bureau, the list of State emblems, and official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty, which they desire, or may hereafter desire, to place wholly or within certain limits under the protection of this Article, and all subsequent modifications of such list. Each country of the Union shall in due course make available to the public the lists so communicated.
Nevertheless such communication is not obligatory in respect of flags of States.
(b) The provisions of subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of this Article shall apply only to such armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations as the latter have communicated to the countries of the Union through the intermediary of the International Bureau.
(4) Any country of the Union may, within a period of twelve months from the receipt of the notification, transmit its objections, if any, through the intermediary of the International Bureau, to the country or international intergovernmental organization concerned.
(5) In the case of State flags, the measures prescribed by paragraph (1), above, shall apply solely to marks registered after November 6, 1925.
(6) In the case of State emblems other than flags, and of official signs and hallmarks of the countries of the Union, and in the case of armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations, these provisions shall apply only to marks registered more than two months after receipt of the communication provided for in paragraph (3), above.
(7) In cases of bad faith, the countries shall have the right to cancel even those marks incorporating State emblems, signs, and hallmarks, which were registered before November 6, 1925.
(8) Nationals of any country who are authorized to make use of the State emblems, signs, and hallmarks, of their country may use them even if they are similar to those of another country.
(9) The countries of the Union undertake to prohibit the unauthorized use in trade of the State armorial bearings of the other countries of the Union, when the use is of such a nature as to be misleading as to the origin of the goods.
(10) The above provisions shall not prevent the countries from exercising the right given in paragraph (3) of Article 6quinquies, Section B, to refuse or to invalidate the registration of marks incorporating, without authorization, armorial bearings, flags, other State emblems, or official signs and hallmarks adopted by a country of the Union, as well as the distinctive signs of international intergovernmental organizations referred to in paragraph (1), above.
Article 6quater
(1) When, in accordance with the law of a country of the Union, the assignment of mark is valid only if it takes place at the same time as the transfer of the business or goodwill to which the mark belongs, it shall suffice for the recognition of such validity that the portion of the business or goodwill located in that country be transferred to the assignee, together with the exclusive right to manufacture in the said country, or to sell therein, the goods bearing the mark assigned.
(2) The foregoing provision does not impose upon the countries of the Union any obligation to regard as valid the assignment of any mark the use of which by the assignee would, in fact, be of such a nature as to mislead the public, particularly as regards the origin, nature, or essential qualities, of the goods to which the mark is applied.
Article 6quinquies
(1) Every trademark duly registered in the country of origin shall be accepted for filing and protected as is in the other countries of the Union, subject to the reservations indicated in this Article. Such countries may, before proceeding to final registration, require the production of a certificate of registration in the country of origin, issued by the competent authority. No authentication shall be required for this certificate.
(2) Shall be considered the country of origin the country of the Union where the applicant has a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment, or, if he has no such establishment within the Union, the country of the Union where he has his domicile, or, if he has no domicile within the Union but is a national of a country of the Union, the country of which he is a national.
B. Trademarks covered by this Article may be neither denied registration nor invalidated except in the following cases:
1. when they are of such a nature as to infringe rights acquired by third parties in the country where protection is claimed;
2. when they are devoid of any distinctive character, or consist exclusively of signs or indications which may serve, in trade, to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, place of origin, of the goods, or the time of production, or have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade of the country where protection is claimed;
3. when they are contrary to morality or public order and, in particular, of such a nature as to deceive the public. It is understood that a mark may not be considered contrary to public order for the sole reason that it does not conform to a provision of the legislation on marks, except if such provision itself relates to public order.
This provision is subject, however, to the application of Article 10bis.
(1) In determining whether a mark is eligible for protection, all the factual circumstances must be taken into consideration, particularly the length of time the mark has been in use.
(2) No trademark shall be refused in the other countries of the Union for the sole reason that it differs from the mark protected in the country of origin only in respect of elements that do not alter its distinctive character and do not affect its identity in the form in which it has been registered in the said country of origin.
D. No person may benefit from the provisions of this Article if the mark for which he claims protection is not registered in the country of origin.
E. However, in no case shall the renewal of the registration of the mark in the country of origin involve an obligation to renew the registration in the other countries of the Union in which the mark has been registered.
F. The benefit of priority shall remain unaffected for applications for the registration of marks filed within the period fixed by Article 4, even if registration in the country of origin is effected after the expiration of such period.
Article 6sexies
The countries of the Union undertake to protect service marks. They shall not be required to provide for the registration of such marks.
Article 6septies
(1) If the agent or representative of the person who is the proprietor of a mark in one of the countries of the Union applies, without such proprietor's authorization, for the registration of the mark in his own name, in one or more countries of the Union, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for or demand its cancellation or, if the law of the country so allows, the assignment in his favor of the said registration, unless such agent or representative justifies his action.
(2) The proprietor of the mark shall, subject to the provisions of paragraph (1), above, be entitled to oppose the use of his mark by his agent or representative if he has not authorized such use.
(3) Domestic legislation may provide an equitable time limit within which the proprietor of a mark must exercise the rights provided for in this Article.
Article 7
The nature of the goods to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to the registration of the mark.
Article 7bis
(1) The countries of the Union undertake to accept for filing and to protect collective marks belonging to associations the existence of which is not contrary to the law of the country of origin, even if such associations do not possess an industrial or commercial establishment.
(2) Each country shall be the judge of the particular conditions under which a collective mark shall be protected and may refuse protection if the mark is contrary to the public interest.
(3) Nevertheless, the protection of these marks shall not be refused to any association the existence of which is not contrary to the law of the country of origin, on the ground that such association is not established in the country where protection is sought or is not constituted according to the law of the latter country.
Article 8
A trade name shall be protected in all the countries of the Union without the obligation of filing or registration, whether or not it forms part of a trademark.
Article 9
(1) All goods unlawfully bearing a trademark or trade name shall be seized on importation into those countries of the Union where such mark or trade name is entitled to legal protection.
(2) Seizure shall likewise be effected in the country where the unlawful affixation occurred or in the country into which the goods were imported.
(3) Seizure shall take place at the request of the public prosecutor, or any other competent authority, or any interested party, whether a natural person or a legal entity, in conformity with the domestic legislation of each country.
(4) The authorities shall not be bound to effect seizure of goods in transit.
(5) If the legislation of a country does not permit seizure on importation, seizure shall be replaced by prohibition of importation or by seizure inside the country.
(6) If the legislation of a country permits neither seizure on importation nor prohibition of importation nor seizure inside the country, then, until such time as the legislation is modified accordingly, these measures shall be replaced by the actions and remedies available in such cases to nationals under the law of such country.
Article 10
(1) The provisions of the preceding Article shall apply in cases of direct or indirect use of a false indication of the source of the goods or the identity of the producer, manufacturer, or merchant.
(2) Any producer, manufacturer, or merchant, whether a natural person or a legal entity, engaged in the production or manufacture of or trade in such goods and established either in the locality falsely indicated as the source, or in the region where such locality is situated, or in the country falsely indicated, or in the country where the false indication of source is used, shall in any case be deemed an interested party.
Article 10bis
(1) The countries of the Union are bound to assure to nationals of such countries effective protection against unfair competition.
(2) Any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters constitutes an act of unfair competition.
(3) The following in particular shall be prohibited:
1. all acts of such a nature as to create confusion by any means whatever with the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
2. false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
3. indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the public as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity, of the goods.
Article 10ter
(1) The countries of the Union undertake to assure to nationals of the other countries of the Union appropriate legal remedies effectively to repress all the acts referred to in Articles 9, 10, and 10bis.
(2) They undertake, further, to provide measures to permit federations and associations representing interested industrialists, producers, or merchants, provided that the existence of such federations and associations is not contrary to the laws of their countries, to take action in the courts or before the administrative authorities, with a view to the repression of the acts referred to in Articles 9, 10, and 10bis, in so far as the law of the country in which protection is claimed allows such action by federations and associations of that country.
Article 11
(1) The countries of the Union shall, in conformity with their domestic legislation, grant temporary protection to patentable inventions, utility models, industrial designs, and trademarks, in respect of goods exhibited at official or officially recognized international exhibitions held in the territory of any of them.
(2) Such temporary protection shall not extend the periods provided by Article 4. If, later, the right of priority is invoked, the authorities of any country may provide that the period shall start from the date of introduction of the goods into the exhibition.
(3) Each country may require, as proof of the identity of the article exhibited and of the date of its introduction, such documentary evidence as it considers necessary.
Article 12
(1) Each country of the Union undertakes to establish a special industrial property service and a central office for the communication to the public of patents, utility models, industrial designs, and trademarks.
(2) This service shall publish an official periodical journal. It shall publish regularly:
(a) the names of the proprietors of patents granted, with a brief designation of the inventions patented;
(b) the reproductions of registered trademarks.
Article 13
(a) The Union shall have an Assembly consisting of those countries of the Union which are bound by Articles 13 to 17.
(b) The Government of each country shall be represented by one delegate, who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors, and experts.
(c) The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Government which has appointed it.
(a) The Assembly shall:
(i) deal with all matters concerning the maintenance and development of the Union and the implementation of this Convention;
(ii) give directions concerning the preparation for conferences of revision to the International Bureau of Intellectual Property (hereinafter designated as "the International Bureau") referred to in the Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (hereinafter designated as "the Organization"), due account being taken of any comments made by those countries of the Union which are not bound by Articles 13 to 17;
(iii)review and approve the reports and activities of the Director General of the Organization concerning the Union, and give him all necessary instructions concerning matters within the competence of the Union;
(iv) elect the members of the Executive Committee of the Assembly;
(v) review and approve the reports and activities of its Executive Committee, and give instructions to such Committee;
(vi) determine the program and adopt the triennial budget of the Union, and approve its final accounts;
(vii) adopt the financial regulations of the Union;
(viii)establish such committees of experts and working groups as it deems appropriate to achieve the objectives of the Union;
(ix) determine which countries not members of the Union and which intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations shall be admitted to its meetings as observers;
(x) adopt amendments to Articles 13 to 17;
(xi) take any other appropriate action designed to further the objectives of the Union;
(xii)perform such other functions as are appropriate under this Convention;
(xiii) subject to its acceptance, exercise such rights as are given to it in the Convention establishing the Organization.
(b) With respect to matters which are of interest also to other Unions administered by the Organization, the Assembly shall make its decisions after having heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.
(a) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b), a delegate may represent one country only.
(b) Countries of the Union grouped under the terms of a special agreement in a common office possessing for each of them the character of a special national service of industrial property as referred to in Article 12 may be jointly represented during discussions by one of their number.
(a) Each country member of the Assembly shall have one vote.
(b) One-half of the countries members of the Assembly shall constitute a quorum.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (b), if, in any session, the number of countries represented is less than one half but equal to or more than one third of the countries members of the Assembly, the Assembly may make decisions but, with the exception of decisions concerning its own procedure, all such decisions shall take effect only if the conditions set forth hereinafter are fulfilled. The International Bureau shall communicate the said decisions to the countries members of the Assembly which were not represented and shall invite them to express in writing their vote or abstention within a period of three months from the date of the communication. If, at the expiration of this period, the number of countries having thus expressed their vote or abstention attains the number of countries which was lacking for attaining the quorum in the session itself, such decisions shall take effect provided that at the same time the required majority still obtains.
(d) Subject to the provisions of Article 17 (2), the decisions of the Assembly shall require two thirds of the votes cast.
(e) Abstentions shall not be considered as votes.
(a) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b), a delegate may vote in the name of one country only.
(b) The countries of the Union referred to in paragraph (3) (b) shall, as a general rule, endeavor to send their own delegations to the sessions of the Assembly. If, however, for exceptional reasons, any such country cannot send its own delegation, it may give to the delegation of another such country the power to vote in its name, provided that each delegation may vote by proxy for one country only. Such power to vote shall be granted in a document signed by the Head of State or the competent Minister.
(6) Countries of the Union not members of the Assembly shall be admitted to the meetings of the latter as observers.
(a) The Assembly shall meet once in every third calendar year in ordinary session upon convocation by the Director General and, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, during the same period and at the same place as the General Assembly of the Organization.
(b) The Assembly shall meet in extraordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, at the request of the Executive Committee or at the request of one fourth of the countries members of the Assembly.
(8) The Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
Article 14
(1) The Assembly shall have an Executive Committee.
(a) The Executive Committee shall consist of countries elected by the Assembly from among countries members of the Assembly. Furthermore, the country on whose territory the Organization has its headquarters shall, subject to the provisions of Article 16 (7) (b), have an ex officio seat on the Committee.
(b) The Government of each country member of the Executive Committee shall be represented by one delegate, who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors, and experts.
(c) The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Government which has appointed it.
(3) The number of countries members of the Executive Committee shall correspond to one fourth of the number of countries members of the Assembly. In establishing the number of seats to be filled, remainders after division by four shall be disregarded.
(4) In electing the members of the Executive Committee, the Assembly shall have due regard to an equitable geographical distribution and to the need for countries party to the Special Agreements established in relation with the Union to be among the countries constituting the Executive Committee.
(a) Each member of the Executive Committee shall serve from the close of the session of the Assembly which elected it to the close of the next ordinary session of the Assembly.
(b) Members of the Executive Committee may be re-elected, but only up to a maximum of two thirds of such members.
(c) The Assembly shall establish the details of the rules governing the election and possible re-election of the members of the Executive Committee.
(a) The Executive Committee shall:
(i) prepare the draft agenda of the Assembly; (ii) submit proposals to the Assembly in respect of the draft program and triennial budget of the Union prepared by the Director General;
(iii)approve, within the limits of the program and the triennial budget, the specific yearly budgets and programs prepared by the Director General;
(iv) submit, with appropriate comments, to the Assembly the periodical reports of the Director General and the yearly audit reports on the accounts;
(v) take all necessary measures to ensure the execution of the program of the Union by the Director General, in accordance with the decisions of the Assembly and having regard to circumstances arising between two ordinary sessions of the Assembly;
(vi) perform such other functions as are allocated to it under this Convention.
(b) With respect to matters which are of interest also to other Unions administered by the Organization, the Executive Committee shall make its decisions after having heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.
(a) The Executive Committee shall meet once a year in ordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, preferably during the same period and at the same place as the Coordination Committee of the Organization.
(b) The Executive Committee shall meet in extraordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, either on his own initiative, or at the request of its Chairman or one fourth of its members.
(a) Each country member of the Executive Committee shall have one vote.
(b) One-half of the members of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum.
(c) Decisions shall be made by a simple majority of the votes cast.
(d) Abstentions shall not be considered as votes.
(e) A delegate may represent, and vote in the name of, one country only.
(9) Countries of the Union not members of the Executive Committee shall be admitted to its meetings as observers.
(10) The Executive Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
Article 15
(a) Administrative tasks concerning the Union shall be performed by the International Bureau, which is a continuation of the Bureau of the Union united with the Bureau of the Union established by the International Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
(b) In particular, the International Bureau shall provide the secretariat of the various organs of the Union.
(c) The Director General of the Organization shall be the chief executive of the Union and shall represent the Union.
(2) The International Bureau shall assemble and publish information concerning the protection of industrial property. Each country of the Union shall promptly communicate to the International Bureau all new laws and official texts concerning the protection of industrial property. Furthermore, it shall furnish the International Bureau with all the publications of its industrial property service of direct concern to the protection of industrial property which the International Bureau may find useful in its work.
(3) The International Bureau shall publish a monthly periodical.
(4) The International Bureau shall, on request, furnish any country of the Union with information on matters concerning the protection of industrial property.
(5) The International Bureau shall conduct studies, and shall provide services, designed to facilitate the protection of industrial property.
(6) The Director General and any staff member designated by him shall participate, without the right to vote, in all meetings of the Assembly, the Executive Committee, and any other committee of experts or working group. The Director General, or a staff member designated by him, shall be ex officio secretary of these bodies.
(a) The International Bureau shall, in accordance with the directions of the Assembly and in cooperation with the Executive Committee, make the preparations for the conferences of revision of the provisions of the Convention other than Articles 13 to 17.
(b) The International Bureau may consult with intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations concerning preparations for conferences of revision.
(c) The Director General and persons designated by him shall take part, without the right to vote, in the discussions at these conferences.
(8) The International Bureau shall carry out any other tasks assigned to it.
Article 16
(a) The Union shall have a budget.
(b) The budget of the Union shall include the income and expenses proper to the Union, its contribution to the budget of expenses common to the Unions, and, where applicable, the sum made available to the budget of the Conference of the Organization.
(c) Expenses not attributable exclusively to the Union but also to one or more other Unions administered by the Organization shall be considered as expenses common to the Unions. The share of the Union in such common expenses shall be in proportion to the interest the Union has in them.
(2) The budget of the Union shall be established with due regard to the requirements of coordination with the budgets of the other Unions administered by the Organization.
(3) The budget of the Union shall be financed from the following sources:
(i) contributions of the countries of the Union;
(ii) fees and charges due for services rendered by the International Bureau in relation to the Union;
(iii)sale of, or royalties on, the publications of the International Bureau concerning the Union;
(iv) gifts, bequests, and subventions;
(v) rents, interests, and other miscellaneous income.
(a) For the purpose of establishing its contribution towards the budget, each country of the Union shall belong to a class, and shall pay its annual contributions on the basis of a number of units fixed as follows:
Class I 25 Class II 20 Class III 15 Class IV 10 Class V 5 Class VI 3 Class VII 1
(b) Unless it has already done so, each country shall indicate, concurrently with depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, the class to which it wishes to belong. Any country may change class. If it chooses a lower class, the country must announce such change to the Assembly at one of its ordinary sessions. Any such change shall take effect at the beginning of the calendar year following the said session.
(c) The annual contribution of each country shall be an amount in the same proportion to the total sum to be contributed to the budget of the Union by all countries as the number of its units is to the total of the units of all contributing countries.
(d) Contributions shall become due on the first of January of each year.
(e) A country which is in arrears in the payment of its contributions may not exercise its right to vote in any of the organs of the Union of which it is a member if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. However, any organ of the Union may allow such a country to continue to exercise its right to vote in that organ if, and as long as, it is satisfied that the delay in payment is due to exceptional and unavoidable circumstances.
(f) If the budget is not adopted before the beginning of a new financial period, it shall be at the same level as the budget of the previous year, as provided in the financial regulations.
(5) The amount of the fees and charges due for services rendered by the International Bureau in relation to the Union shall be established, and shall be reported to the Assembly and the Executive Committee, by the Director General.
(a) The Union shall have a working capital fund which shall be constituted by a single payment made by each country of the Union. If the fund becomes insufficient, the Assembly shall decide to increase it.
(b) The amount of the initial payment of each country to the said fund or of its participation in the increase thereof shall be a proportion of the contribution of that country for the year in which the fund is established or the decision to increase it is made.
(c) The proportion and the terms of payment shall be fixed by the Assembly on the proposal of the Director General and after it has heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.
(a) In the headquarters agreement concluded with the country on the territory of which the Organization has its headquarters, it shall be provided that, whenever the working capital fund is insufficient, such country shall grant advances. The amount of these advances and the conditions on which they are granted shall be the subject of separate agreements, in each case, between such country and the Organization. As long as it remains under the obligation to grant advances, such country shall have an ex officio seat on the Executive Committee.
(b) The country referred to in subparagraph (a) and the Organization shall each have the right to denounce the obligation to grant advances, by written notification. Denunciation shall take effect three years after the end of the year in which it has been notified.
(8) The auditing of the accounts shall be effected by one or more of the countries of the Union or by external auditors, as provided in the financial regulations. They shall be designated, with their agreement, by the Assembly.
Article 17
(1) Proposals for the amendment of Articles 13, 14, 15, 16, and the present Article, may be initiated by any country member of the Assembly, by the Executive Committee, or by the Director General. Such proposals shall be communicated by the Director General to the member countries of the Assembly at least six months in advance of their consideration by the Assembly.
(2) Amendments to the Articles referred to in paragraph (1) shall be adopted by the Assembly. Adoption shall require three fourths of the votes cast, provided that any amendment to Article 13, and to the present paragraph, shall require four fifths of the votes cast.
(3) Any amendment to the Articles referred to in paragraph (1) shall enter into force one month after written notifications of acceptance, effected in accordance with their respective constitutional processes, have been received by the Director General from three fourths of the countries members of the Assembly at the time it adopted the amendment. Any amendment to the said Articles thus accepted shall bind all the countries which are members of the Assembly at the time the amendment enters into force, or which become members thereof at a subsequent date, provided that any amendment increasing the financial obligations of countries of the Union shall bind only those countries which have notified their acceptance of such amendment.
Article 18
(1) This Convention shall be submitted to revision with a view to the introduction of amendments designed to improve the system of the Union.
(2) For that purpose, conferences shall be held successively in one of the countries of the Union among the delegates of the said countries.
(3) Amendments to Articles 13 to 17 are governed by the provisions of Article 17.
Article 19
It is understood that the countries of the Union reserve the right to make separately between themselves special agreements for the protection of industrial property, in so far as these agreements do not contravene the provisions of this Convention.
Article 20
(a) Any country of the Union which has signed this Act may ratify it, and, if it has not signed it, may accede to it. Instruments of ratification and accession shall be deposited with the Director General.
(b) Any country of the Union may declare in its instrument of ratification or accession that its ratification or accession shall not apply:
(i) to Articles 1 to 12, or
(ii) to Articles 13 to 17.
(c) Any country of the Union which, in accordance with subparagraph (b), has excluded from the effects of its ratification or accession one of the two groups of Articles referred to in that subparagraph may at any later time declare that it extends the effects of its ratification or accession to that group of Articles. Such declaration shall be deposited with the Director General.
(a) Articles 1 to 12 shall enter into force, with respect to the first ten countries of the Union which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession without making the declaration permitted under paragraph (1) (b) (i), three months after the deposit of the tenth such instrument of ratification or accession.
(b) Articles 13 to 17 shall enter into force, with respect to the first ten countries of the Union which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession without making the declaration permitted under paragraph (1) (b) (ii), three months after the deposit of the tenth such instrument of ratification or accession.
(c) Subject to the initial entry into force, pursuant to the provisions of subparagraphs (a) and (b), of each of the two groups of Articles referred to in paragraph (1) (b) (i) and (ii), and subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) (b), Articles 1 to 17 shall, with respect to any country of the Union, other than those referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b), which deposits an instrument of ratification or accession or any country of the Union which deposits a declaration pursuant to paragraph (1) (c), enter into force three months after the date of notification by the Director General of such deposit, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument or declaration deposited. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.
(3) With respect to any country of the Union which deposits an instrument of ratification or accession, Articles 18 to 30 shall enter into force on the earlier of the dates on which any of the groups of Articles referred to in paragraph (1) (b) enters into force with respect to that country pursuant to paragraph (2) (a), (b), or (c).
Article 21
(1) Any country outside the Union may accede to this Act and thereby become a member of the Union. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Director General.
(a) With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession one month or more before the date of entry into force of any provisions of the present Act, this Act shall enter into force, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession, on the date upon which provisions first enter into force pursuant to Article 20(2) (a) or (b); provided that:
(i) if Articles 1 to 12 do not enter into force on that date, such country shall, during the interim period before the entry into force of such provisions, and in substitution therefor, be bound by Articles 1 to 12 of the Lisbon Act,
(ii) if Articles 13 to 17 do not enter into force on that date, such country shall, during the interim period before the entry into force of such provisions, and in substitution therefor, be bound by Articles 13 and 14(3), (4), and (5), of the Lisbon Act.
If a country indicates a subsequent date in its instrument of accession, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.
(b) With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession on a date which is subsequent to, or precedes by less than one month, the entry into force of one group of Articles of the present Act, this Act shall, subject to the proviso of subparagraph (a), enter into force three months after the date on which its accession has been notified by the Director General, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.
(3) With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession after the date of entry into force of the present Act in its entirety, or less than one month before such date, this Act shall enter into force three months after the date on which its accession has been notified by the Director General, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.
Article 22
Subject to the possibilities of exceptions provided for in Articles 20 (1) (b) and 28(2), ratification or accession shall automatically entail acceptance of all the clauses and admission to all the advantages of this Act.
Article 23
After the entry into force of this Act in its entirety, a country may not accede to earlier Acts of this Convention.
Article 24
(1) Any country may declare in its instrument of ratification or accession, or may inform the Director General by written notification any time thereafter, that this Convention shall be applicable to all or part of those territories, designated in the declaration or notification, for the external relations of which it is responsible.
(2) Any country which has made such a declaration or given such a notification may, at any time, notify the Director General that this Convention shall cease to be applicable to all or part of such territories.
(a) Any declaration made under paragraph (1) shall take effect on the same date as the ratification or accession in the instrument of which it was included, and any notification given under such paragraph shall take effect three months after its notification by the Director General.
(b) Any notification given under paragraph (2) shall take effect twelve months after its receipt by the Director General.
Article 25
(1) Any country party to this Convention undertakes to adopt, in accordance with its constitution, the measures necessary to ensure the application of this Convention.
(2) It is understood that, at the time a country deposits its instrument of ratification or accession, it will be in a position under its domestic law to give effect to the provisions of this Convention.
Article 26
(1) This Convention shall remain in force without limitation as to time.
(2) Any country may denounce this Act by notification addressed to the Director General. Such denunciation shall constitute also denunciation of all earlier Acts and shall affect only the country making it, the Convention remaining in full force and effect as regards the other countries of the Union.
(3) Denunciation shall take effect one year after the day on which the Director General has received the notification.
(4) The right of denunciation provided by this Article shall not be exercised by any country before the expiration of five years from the date upon which it becomes a member of the Union.
Article 27
(1) The present Act shall, as regards the relations between the countries to which it applies, and to the extent that it applies, replace the Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883, and the subsequent Acts of revision.
(a) As regards the countries to which the present Act does not apply, or does not apply in its entirety, but to which the Lisbon Act of October 31, 1958, applies, the latter shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).
(b) Similarly, as regards the countries to which neither the present Act, nor portions thereof, nor the Lisbon Act applies, the London Act of June 2, 1934 shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).
(c) Similarly, as regards the countries to which neither the present Act, nor portions thereof, nor the Lisbon Act, nor the London Act applies, the Hague Act of November 6, 1925, shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).
(3) Countries outside the Union which become party to this Act shall apply it with respect to any country of the Union not party to this Act or which, although party to this Act, has made a declaration pursuant to Article 20 (1)(b) (i). Such countries recognize that the said country of the Union may apply, in its relations with them, the provisions of the most recent Act to which it is party.
Article 28
(1) Any dispute between two or more countries of the Union concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, not settled by negotiation, may, by any one of the countries concerned, be brought before the International Court of Justice by application in conformity with the Statute of the Court, unless the countries concerned agree on some other method of settlement. The country bringing the dispute before the Court shall inform the International Bureau; the International Bureau shall bring the matter to the attention of the other countries of the Union.
(2) Each country may, at the time it signs this Act or deposits its instrument of ratification or accession, declare that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph (1). With regard to any dispute between such country and any other country of the Union, the provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply.
(3) Any country having made a declaration in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (2) may, at any time, withdraw its declaration by notification addressed to the Director General.
Article 29
(a) This Act shall be signed in a single copy in the French language and shall be deposited with the Government of Sweden.
(b) Official texts shall be established by the Director General, after consultation with the interested Governments, in the English, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish languages, and such other languages as the Assembly may designate.
(c) In case of differences of opinion on the interpretation of the various texts, the French text shall prevail.
(2) This Act shall remain open for signature at Stockholm until January 13, 1968.
(3) The Director General shall transmit two copies, certified by the Government of Sweden, of the signed text of this Act to the Governments of all countries of the Union and, on request, to the Government of any other country.
(4) The Director General shall register this Act with the Secretariat of the United Nations.
(5) The Director General shall notify the Governments of all countries of the Union of signatures, deposits of instruments of ratification or accession and any declarations included in such instruments or made pursuant to Article 20 (1) (c), entry into force of any provisions of this Act, notifications of denunciation, and notifications pursuant to Article 24.
Article 30
(1) Until the first Director General assumes office, references in this Act to the International Bureau of the Organization or to the Director General shall be deemed to be references to the Bureau of the Union or its Director, respectively.
(2) Countries of the Union not bound by Articles 13 to 17 may, until five years after the entry into force of the Convention establishing the Organization, exercise, if they so desire, the rights provided under Articles 13 to 17 of this Act as if they were bound by those Articles. Any country desiring to exercise such rights shall give written notification to that effect to the Director General; such notification shall be effective from the date of its receipt. Such countries shall be deemed to be members of the Assembly until the expiration of the said period.
(3) As long as all the countries of the Union have not become Members of the Organization, the International Bureau of the Organization shall also function as the Bureau of the Union, and the Director General as the Director of the said Bureau.
(4) Once all the countries of the Union have become Members of the Organization, the rights, obligations, and property, of the Bureau of the Union shall devolve on the International Bureau of the Organization.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Act.
DONE at Stockholm, on July 14, 1967.

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to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

Article 3
The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.

Article 4
1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Article 5
A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

Article 6
A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Article 7
1. There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations:
a General Assembly
a Security Council
an Economic and Social Council
a Trusteeship Council
an International Court of Justice
and a Secretariat.
2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 8
The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and subsidiary organs.

Article 9
1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
2. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.

Article 10
The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.

Article 11
1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.
3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.
4. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.

Article 12
1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.
2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and shall similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the Security Council ceases to deal with suchmatters.

Article 13
1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of:
a. promoting international co-operation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification;
b. promoting international co-operation in the economic, social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the General Assembly with respect to matters mentioned in paragraph 1 (b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X.

Article 14
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

Article 15
1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace and security.
2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

Article 16
The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areasnot designated as strategic.

Article 17
1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization.
2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly.
3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

Article 18
1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.
Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1 (c) of Article 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.
2. Decisions on other questions, including the determination of additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Article 19
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the Member.

Article 20
The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the Members of the United Nations.

Article 21
The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session.

Article 22
The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.


Article 23
1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution.
2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.
3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.

Article 24
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations,its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.
2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII.
3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.

Article 25
The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 26
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.

Article 27
1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.
3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

Article 28
1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the seat of the Organization.
2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each of itsmembers may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of thegovernment or by some other specially designated representative.
3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.

Article 29
The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

Article 30
The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

Article 31
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected.

Article 32
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations.


Article 33
1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

Article 34
The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 35
1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly.
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of pacific settlement provided in the present Charter.
3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of matters brought to its attention under this Article will be subject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.

Article 36
1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment.
2. The Security Council should take into consideration any procedures for the settlement of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties.
3. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court.

Article 37
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.
2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate.

Article 38
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute.


Article 39
The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Article 40
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures.

Article 41
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

Article 42
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Article 43
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces, their degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be provided.
3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

Article 44
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces.

Article 45
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures, Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 46
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 47
1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.
2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge of the Committee's responsibilities requires the participation of that Member in its work.
3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out subsequently.
4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the Security Council and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional sub-committees.

Article 48
1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may determine.
2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they remembers.

Article 49
The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.

Article 50
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems.

Article 51
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.


Article 52
1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them to the Security Council.
3. The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council.
4. This Article in no way impairs the application of Articles 34 and 35.

Article 53
1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Organization may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a state.
2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

Article 54
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security.


Article 55
With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:
a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;
b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and
c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

Article 56
All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 57
1. The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized agencies.
Article 58
The Organization shall make recommendations for the co-ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies.

Article 59
The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations among the states concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 60
Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the General Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X.



Article 61
1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-four Members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen members of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be eligible for immediate re-election.
3. At the first election after the increase in the membership of the Economic and Social Council from twenty-seven to fifty-four members, in addition to the members elected in place of the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of that year, twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of these twenty-seven additional members, the term of office of nine members so elected shall expire at the end of one year, and of nine other members at the end of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.
4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative.

Article 62
1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned.
2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
3. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling within its competence.
4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations,international conferences on matters falling within its competence.

Article 63
1. The Economic and Social Council may enter into agreements with any of the agencies referred to in Article 57, defining the terms on which the agency concerned shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations. Such agreements shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly.
2. It may co-ordinate the activities of the specialized agencies through consultation with and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the General Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations.

Article 64
1. The Economic and Social Council may take appropriate steps to obtain regular reports from the specialized agencies. It may make arrangements with the Members of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies to obtain reports on the steps taken to give effect to its own recommendations and to recommendations on matters falling within its competence made by the General Assembly.
2. It may communicate its observations on these reports to the General Assembly.

Article 65
The Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and shall assist the Security Council upon its request.

Article 66
1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its competence in connexion with the carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly.
2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, perform services at the request of Members of the United Nations and at the request of specialized agencies.
3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified elsewhere in the present Charter or as may be assigned to it by the General Assembly.

Article 67
1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Article 68
The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human rights, and such other commissions as may be required for the performance of its functions.

Article 69
The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to participate, without vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to that Member.

Article 70
The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of the specialized agencies to participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those of the commissions established by it, and for its representatives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.

Article 71
The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned.

Article 72
1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.
2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.


Article 73
Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter, the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end:
a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;
b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;
c. to further international peace and security;
d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and to co-operate with one another and, when and where appropriate, with specialized international bodies with a view to the practical achievement of the social, economic, and scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and
e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes, subject to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may require, statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic, social, and educational conditions in the territories for which they are respectively responsible other than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply.

Article 74
Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, must be based on the general principle of good-neighbourliness, due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and commercial matters.


Article 75
The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.

Article 76
The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:
a. to further international peace and security;
b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement;
c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and
d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of justice, without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.

Article 77
1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:
a. territories now held under mandate;
b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War; and
c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsiblefor their administration.
2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what terms.

Article 78
The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality.

Article 79
The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and 85.

Article 80
1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties.
2. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.

Article 81
The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.

Article 82
There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.

Article 83
1. All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment shall be exercised by the Security Council.
2. The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each strategic area.
3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to political, economic, social, and educational matters in the strategic areas.

Article 84
It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.

Article 85
4. The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General Assembly.
5. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.


Article 86
1. The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United Nations:
a. those Members administering trust territories;
b. such of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering trust territories; and
c. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly as may be necessary to ensure that the total number of members of the Trusteeship Council is equally divided between those Members of the United Nations which administer trust territories and those which do not.
2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate one specially qualified person to represent it therein.

Article 87
The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out their functions, may:
a. consider reports submitted by the administering authority;
b. accept petitions and examine them in consultation with the administering authority;
c. provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon with the administering authority; and
d. take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship agreements.

Article 88
The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such questionnaire.

Article 89
1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Article 90
1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.
2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.

Article 91
The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned.


Article 92
The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter.

Article 93
1. All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on conditions to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Article 94
1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decision of the International Court of Justice in any case to which it is a party.
2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.

Article 95
Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements already in existence or which may be concluded in the future.

Article 96
1. The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question.
2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies, which may at any time be so authorized by the General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.


Article 97
The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the Organization may require. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization.

Article 98
The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization.

Article 99
The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 100
1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority external to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Organization.
2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.

Article 101
1. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General under regulations established by the General Assembly.
2. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned to the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and, as required, to other organs of the United Nations. These staffs shall form a part of the Secretariat.
3. The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.


Article 102
1. Every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it.
2. No party to any such treaty or international agreement which has not been registered in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article may invoke that treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations.

Article 103
In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail.

Article 104
The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.

Article 105
1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfilment of its purposes.
2. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in connexion with the Organization.
3. The General Assembly may make recommendations with a view to determining the details of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this purpose.


Article 106
Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration, signed at Moscow, 30 October 1943, and France, shall, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion requires with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.

Article 107
Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action.

Article 108
Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.

Article 109
1. A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members of the Security Council. Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.
2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
3. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council.

Article 110
1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, which shall notify all the signatory states of each deposit as well as the Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been appointed.
3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of ratifications by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, and by a majority of the other signatory states. A protocol of the ratifications deposited shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the United States of America which shall communicate copies thereof to all the signatory states.
4. The states signatory to the present Charter which ratify it after it has come into force will become original Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit of their respective ratifications.

Article 111
The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations have signed the present Charter.
DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five.

The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

Amendments to Articles 23, 27 and 61 of the Charter were adopted by the General Assembly on 17 December 1963 and came into force on 31 August 1965. A further amendment to Article 61 was adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 1971, and came into force on 24 September 1973. An amendment to Article 109, adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 1965, came into force on 12 June 1968.

The amendment to Article 23 enlarges the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen. The amended Article 27 provides that decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members (formerly seven) and on all other matters by an affirmative vote of nine members (formerly seven), including the concurring votes of the five permanent members of the Security Council.

The amendment to Article 61, which entered into force on 31 August 1965, enlarged the membership of the Economic and Social Council from eighteen to twenty-seven. The subsequent amendment to that Article, which entered into force on 24 September 1973, further increased the membership of the Council from twenty-seven to fifty-four.

The amendment to Article 109, which relates to the first paragraph of that Article, provides that a General Conference of Member States for the purpose of reviewing the Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members (formerly seven) of the Security Council. Paragraph 3 of Article 109, which deals with the consideration of a possible review conference during the tenth regular session of the General Assembly, has been retained in its original form in its reference to a "vote, of any seven members of the Security Council", the paragraph having been acted upon in 1955 by the General Assembly, at its tenth regular session, and by the Security Council.

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RE: Year 2000 ULF Anomalies
Wed, 28 Jun 2000 15:36:04 -0700
Wes Thomas
Marshall Smith , Charlie Plyler

Bernard Eastlund's comment:

It is no hypothesis that HAARP may be communicating with submarines. That is actually one of its official purposes. The communications aspects of my patents were all oriented towards submarine communications with ELF waves. HAARP has conducted many experiments, which are published, aimed at controlling ELF waves and distributing them around the earth via something
known as the "whispering gallery" (a particular layer of the ionosphere). At the time I was inventing the applications of the large antenna (1984-1985) the purpose was to replace the "Takamo" navy program, in which airplanes trailing mile long copper wires stayed aloft for 18 hours at a time to communicate with submarines via ELF waves.

That program may still be in existence, you ought to check on it.

Regarding .9 Hz waves:

Generation of these waves has been discussed in the open literature at HAARP technical conferences. In particular, there is a paper entitled, "Using HAARP to excite the ionospheric waveguide" by John Olson in the 1998 proceedings of the RF Ionospheric Interactions Workshop sponsored by the NSF in cooperation with the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Office of Naval Research and
Cornell University. This paper has the equations describing the generation of the waves.

Glad to hear from you again.


Dr. Ben Eastlund

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Dear Sir,

At your request I will endeavor to convey to you a notion of that which I ventured to say at the close of the last Friday-evening Meeting, incidental to the account I gave of Wheatstone's electro-magnetic chronoscope; but from first to last understand that I merely threw out as matter for speculation, the vague impressions of my mind, for I gave nothing as the result of sufficient consideration, or as the settled conviction, or even probable conclusion at which I had arrived.

The point intended to be set forth for consideration of the hearers was, whether it was not possible that vibrations which in a certain theory are assumed to account for radiation and radiant phaenomena may not occur in the lines of force which connect particles, and consequently masses of matter together; a notion which as far as is admitted, will dispense with the aether, which in another view, is supposed to be the medium in which these vibrations take place.

You are aware of the speculation (2) which I some time since uttered respecting that view of the nature of matter which considers its ultimate atoms as centres of force, and not as so many little bodies surrounded by forces, the bodies being considered in the abstract as independent of the forces and capable of existing without them. In the latter view, these little particles have a definite form and a certain limited size; in the former view such is not the case, for that which represents size may be considered as extending to any distance to which the lines of force of the particle extend: the particle indeed is supposed to exist only by these forces, and where they are it is. The consideration of matter under this view gradually led me to look at the lines of force as being perhaps the seat of vibrations of radiant phenomena.

Another consideration bearing conjointly on the hypothetical view both of matter and radiation, arises from the comparison of the velocities with which the radiant action and certain powers of matter are transmitted. The velocity of light through space is about 190,000 miles in a second; the velocity of electricity is, by the experiments of Wheatstone, shown to be as great as this, if not greater: the light is supposed to be transmitted by vibrations through an aether which is, so to speak, destitute of gravitation, but infinite in elasticity; the electricity is transmitted through a small metallic wire, and is often viewed as transmitted by vibrations also. That the electric transference depends on the forces or powers of the matter of the wire can hardly be doubted, when we consider the different conductibility of the various metallic and other bodies; the means of affecting it by heat or cold; the way in which conducting bodies by combination enter into the constitution of non-conducting substances, and the contrary; and the actual existence of one elementary body, carbon, both in the conducting and non-conducting state. The power of electric conduction (being a transmission of force equal in velocity to that of light) appears to be tied up in and dependent upon the properties of the matter, and is, as it were, existent in them.

I suppose we may compare together the matter of the aether and ordinary matter (as, for instance, the copper of the wire through which the electricity is conducted), and consider them as alike in their essential constitution; i.e. either as both composed of little nuclei, considered in the abstract as matter, and of force or power associated with these nuclei, or else both consisting of mere centres of force, according to Boscovich's theory and the view put forth in my speculation; for there is no reason to assume that the nuclei are more requisite in the one case than in the other. It is true that the copper gravitates and the aether does not, and that therefore the copper is ponderable and the aether is not; but that cannot indicate the presence of nuclei in the copper more than in the aether, for of all the powers of matter gravitation is the one in which the force extends to the greatest possible distance from the supposed nucleus, being infinite in relation to the size of the latter, and reducing the nucleus to a mere centre of force. The smallest atom of matter on the earth acts directly on the smallest atom of matter in the sun, though they are 95,000,000 miles apart; further, atoms which, to our knowledge, are at least nineteen times that distance, and indeed in cometary masses, far more, are in a similar way tied together by the lines of force extending from and belonging to each. What is there in the condition of the particles of the supposed aether, if there be even only one such particle between us and the sun, that can in subtility and extent compare to this?

Let us not be confused by the ponderability and gravitation of heavy matter, as if they proved the presence of the abstract nuclei; these are due not to the nuclei, but to the force super-added to them, if the nuclei exist at all; and, if the aether particles be without this force, which according to the assumption is the case, then they are more material, in the abstract sense, than the matter of this our globe; for matter, according to the assumption, being made up of nuclei and force, the aether particles have in this respect proportionately more of the nucleus and less of the force.

On the other hand, the infinite elasticity assumed as belonging to the particles of the aether, is as striking and positive a force of it as gravity is of ponderable particles, and produces in its way effects as great; in witness whereof we have all the varieties of radiant agency as exhibited in luminous, caloric, and actinic phaenomena.

Perhaps I am in error in thinking the idea generally formed of the aether is that its nuclei are almost infinitely small, and that such force as it has, namely its elasticity, is almost infinitely intense. But if such be the received notion, what then is left in the aether but force or centres of force? As gravitation and solidity do not belong to it, perhaps many may admit this conclusion; but what are gravitation and solidity? certainly not the weight and contact of the abstract nuclei. The one is the consequence of an attractive force, which can act at distances as great as the mind of man can estimate or conceive; and the other is the consequence of a repulsive force, which forbids for ever the contact or touch of any two nuclei; so that these powers or properties should not in any degree lead those persons who conceive of the aether as a thing consisting of force only, to think any otherwise of ponderable matter, except that it has more and other forces associated with it than the aether has.

In experimental philosophy we can, by the phaenomena presented, recognize various kinds of lines of force; thus there are the lines of gravitating force, those of electro-static induction, those of magnetic action, and others partaking of a dynamic character might be perhaps included. The lines of electric and magnetic action are by many considered as exerted through space like the lines of gravitating force. For my own part, I incline to believe that when there are intervening particles of matter (being themselves only centres of force), they take part in carrying on the force through the line, but that when there are none, the line proceeds through space. Whatever the view adopted respecting them may be, we can, at all events, affect these lines of force in a manner which may be conceived as partaking of the nature of a shake or lateral vibration. For suppose two bodies, A B, distant from each other and under mutual action, and therefore connected by lines of force, and let us fix our attention upon one resultant of force, having an invariable direction as regards space; if one of the bodies move in the least degree right or left, or if its power be shifted for a moment within the mass (neither of these cases being difficult to realise if A and B be either electric or magnetic bodies), then an effect equivalent to a lateral disturbance will take place in the resultant upon which we are fixing our attention; for, either it will increase in force whilst the neighboring results are diminishing, or it will fall in force as they are increasing.

It may be asked, what lines of force are there in nature which are fitted to convey such an action and supply for the vibrating theory the place of the aether? I do not pretend to answer this question with any confidence; all I can say is, that I do not perceive in any part of space, whether (to use the common phrase) vacant or filled with matter, anything but forces and the lines in which they are exerted. The lines of weight or gravitating force are, certainly, extensive enough to answer in this respect any demand made upon them by radiant phaenomena; and so, probably, are the lines of magnetic force: and then who can forget that Mossotti has shown that gravitation, aggregation, electric force, and electro-chemical action may all have one common connection or origin; and so, in their actions at a distance, may have in common that infinite scope which some of these actions are known to possess?

The view which I am so bold to put forth considers, therefore, radiation as a kind of species of vibration in the lines of force which are known to connect particles and also masses of matter together. It endeavors to dismiss the aether, but not the vibration. The kind of vibration which, I believe, can alone account for the wonderful, varied, and beautiful phaenomena of polarization, is not the same as that which occurs on the surface of disturbed water, or the waves of sound in gases or liquids, for the vibrations in these cases are direct, or to and from the centre of action, whereas the former are lateral. It seems to me, that the resultant of two or more lines of force is in an apt condition for that action which may be considered as equivalent to a lateral vibration; whereas a uniform medium, like the aether, does not appear apt, or more apt than air or water.

The occurrence of a change at one end of a line of force easily suggests a consequent change at the other. The propagation of light, and therefore probably of all radiant action, occupies time; and, that a vibration of the line of force should account for the phaenomena of radiation, it is necessary that such vibration should occupy time also. I am not aware whether there are any data by which it has been, or could be ascertained whether such a power as gravitation acts without occupying time, or whether lines of force being already in existence, such a lateral disturbance at one end as I have suggested above, would require time, or must of necessity be felt instantly at the other end.

As to that condition of the lines of force which represents the assumed high elasticity of the aether, it cannot in this respect be deficient: the question here seems rather to be, whether the lines are sluggish enough in their action to render them equivalent to the aether in respect of the time known experimentally to be occupied in the transmission of radiant force.

The aether is assumed as pervading all bodies as well as space: in the view now set forth, it is the forces of the atomic centres which pervade (and make) all bodies, and also penetrate all space. As regards space, the difference is, that the aether presents successive parts of centres of action, and the present supposition only lines of action; as regards matter, the difference is, that the aether lies between the particles and so carries on the vibrations, whilst as respects the supposition, it is by the lines of force between the centres of the particles that the vibration is continued. As to the difference in intensity of action within matter under the two views, I suppose it will be very difficult to draw any conclusion, for when we take the simplest state of common matter and that which most nearly causes it to approximate to the condition of the aether, namely the state of the rare gas, how soon do we find in its elasticity and the mutual repulsion of its particles, a departure from the law, that the action is inversely as the square of the distance!

And now, my dear Phillips, I must conclude. I do not think I should have allowed these notions to have escaped from me, had I not been led unawares, and without previous consideration, by the circumstances of the evening on which I had to appear suddenly and occupy the place of another. Now that I have put them on paper, I feel that I ought to have kept them much longer for study, consideration, and, perhaps final rejection; and it is only because they are sure to go abroad in one way or another, in consequence of their utterance on that evening, that I give shape, if shape it may be called, in this reply to your inquiry. One thing is certain, that any hypothetical view of radiation which is likely to be received or retained as satisfactory, must not much longer comprehend alone certain phaenomena of light, but must include those of heat and of actinic influence also, and even the conjoined phaenomena of sensible heat and chemical power produced by them. In this respect, a view, which is in some degree founded upon the ordinary forces of matter, may perhaps find a little consideration amongst the other views that will probably arise. I think it likely that I have made many mistakes in the preceeding pages, for even to myself, my ideas on this point appear only as the shadow of a speculation, or as one of those impressions on the mind which are allowable for a time as guides to thought and research. He who labours in experimental inquiries knows how numerous these are, and how often their apparent fitness and beauty vanish before the progress and development of real natural truth.

I am, my dear Phillips,

Ever truly yours,

M. Faraday,

April 15, 1846

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// END ACT //


// PIKE ACT //


// END ACT //





// END ACT //





// END ACT //



04-May-99 11:35 AM EDT (1535 UTC)

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NSA Handbook


Security Guidelines
This handbook is designed to introduce you to some of the basic security principles and procedures with which all NSA employees must comply. It highlights some of your security responsibilities, and provides guidelines for answering questions you may be asked concerning your association with this Agency. Although you will be busy during the forthcoming weeks learning your job, meeting co-workers, and becoming accustomed to a new work environment, you are urged to become familiar with the security information contained in this handbook. Please note that a listing of telephone numbers is provided at the end of this handbook should you have any questions or concerns.

In joining NSA you have been given an opportunity to participate in the activities of one of the most important intelligence organizations of the United States Government. At the same time, you have also assumed a trust which carries with it a most important individual responsibility--the safeguarding of sensitive information vital to the security of our nation.

While it is impossible to estimate in actual dollars and cents the value of the work being conducted by this Agency, the information to which you will have access at NSA is without question critically important to the defense of the United States. Since this information may be useful only if it is kept secret, it requires a very special measure of protection. The specific nature of this protection is set forth in various Agency security regulations and directives. The total NSA Security Program, however, extends beyond these regulations. It is based upon the concept that security begins as a state of mind. The program is designed to develop an appreciation of the need to protect information vital to the national defense, and to foster the development of a level of awareness which will make security more than routine compliance with regulations.

At times, security practices and procedures cause personal inconvenience. They take time and effort and on occasion may make it necessary for you to voluntarily forego some of your usual personal perogatives. But your compensation for the inconvenience is the knowledge that the work you are accomplishing at NSA, within a framework of sound security practices, contributes significantly to the defense and continued security of the United States of America.

I extend to you my very best wishes as you enter upon your chosen career or assignment with NSA.

Philip T. Pease
Director of Security


Perhaps one of the first security practices with which new NSA personnel should become acquainted is the practice of anonymity. In an open society such as ours, this practice is necessary because information which is generally available to the public is available also to hostile intelligence. Therefore, the Agency mission is best accomplished apart from public attention. Basically, anonymity means that NSA personnel are encouraged not to draw attention to themselves nor to their association with this Agency. NSA personnel are also cautioned neither to confirm nor deny any specific questions about NSA activities directed to them by individuals not affiliated with the Agency.

The ramifications of the practice of anonymity are rather far reaching, and its success depends on the cooperation of all Agency personnel. Described below you will find some examples of situations that you may encounter concerning your employment and how you should cope with them. Beyond the situations cited, your judgement and discretion will become the deciding factors in how you respond to questions about your employment.

Answering Questions About Your Employment
Certainly, you may tell your family and friends that you are employed at or assigned to the National Security Agency. There is no valid reason to deny them this information. However, you may not disclose to them any information concerning specific aspects of the Agency's mission, activities, and organization. You should also ask them not to publicize your association with NSA.

Should strangers or casual acquaintances question you about your place of employment, an appropriate reply would be that you work for the Department of Defense. If questioned further as to where you are employed within the Department of Defense, you may reply, "NSA." When you inform someone that you work for NSA (or the Department of Defense) you may expect that the next question will be, "What do you do?" It is a good idea to anticipate this question and to formulate an appropriate answer. Do not act mysteriously about your employment, as that would only succeed in drawing more attention to yourself.

If you are employed as a secretary, engineer, computer scientist, or in a clerical, administrative, technical, or other capacity identifiable by a general title which in no way indicates how your talents are being applied to the mission of the Agency, it is suggested that you state this general title. If you are employed as a linguist, you may say that you are a linguist, if necessary. However, you should not indicate the specific language(s) with which you are involved.

The use of service specialty titles which tend to suggest or reveal the nature of the Agency's mission or specific aspects of their work. These professional titles, such as cryptanalyst, signals collection officer, and intelligence research analyst, if given verbatim to an outsider, would likely generate further questions which may touch upon the classified aspects of your work. Therefore, in conversation with outsiders, it is suggested that such job titles be generalized. For example, you might indicate that you are a "research analyst." You may not, however, discuss the specific nature of your analytic work.

Answering Questions About Your Agency Training
During your career or assignment at NSA, there is a good chance that you will receive some type of job-related training. In many instances the nature of the training is not classified. However, in some situations the specialized training you receive will relate directly to sensitive Agency functions. In such cases, the nature of this training may not be discussed with persons outside of this Agency.

If your training at the Agency includes language training, your explanation for the source of your linguistic knowledge should be that you obtained it while working for the Department of Defense.

You Should not draw undue attention to your language abilities, and you may not discuss how you apply your language skill at the Agency.

If you are considering part-time employment which requires the use of language or technical skills similar to those required for the performance of your NSA assigned duties, you must report (in advance) the anticipated part-time work through your Staff Security Officer (SSO) to the Office of Security's Clearance Division (M55).

Verifying Your Employment
On occasion, personnel must provide information concerning their employment to credit institutions in connection with various types of applications for credit. In such situations you may state, if you are a civilian employee, that you are employed by NSA and indicate your pay grade or salary. Once again, generalize your job title. If any further information is desired by persons or firms with whom you may be dealing, instruct them to request such information by correspondence addressed to: Director of Civilian Personnel, National Security Agency, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland 20755-6000. Military personnel should use their support group designator and address when indicating their current assignment.

If you contemplate leaving NSA for employment elsewhere, you may be required to submit a resume/job application, or to participate in extensive employment interviews. In such circumstances, you should have your resume reviewed by the Classification Advisory Officer (CAO) assigned to your organization. Your CAO will ensure that any classified operational details of your duties have been excluded and will provide you with an unclassified job description. Should you leave the Agency before preparing such a resume, you may develop one and send it by registered mail to the NSA/CSS Information Policy Division (Q43) for review. Remember, your obligation to protect sensitive Agency information extends beyond your employment at NSA.

The Agency And Public News Media
From time to time you may find that the agency is the topic of reports or articles appearing in public news media--newspapers, magazines, books, radio and TV. The NSA/CSS Information Policy Division (Q43) represents the Agency in matters involving the press and other media. This office serves at the Agency's official media center and is the Director's liaison office for public relations, both in the community and with other government agencies. The Information Policy Division must approve the release of all information for and about NSA, its mission, activities, and personnel. In order to protect the aspects of Agency operations, NSA personnel must refrain from either confirming or denying any information concerning the Agency or its activities which may appear in the public media. If you are asked about the activities of NSA, the best response is "no comment." You should the notify Q43 of the attempted inquiry. For the most part, public references to NSA are based upon educated guesses. The Agency does not normally make a practice of issuing public statements about its activities.


Espionage And Terrorism
During your security indoctrination and throughout your NSA career you will become increasingly aware of the espionage and terrorist threat to the United States. Your vigilance is the best single defense in protecting NSA information, operations, facilities and people. Any information that comes to your attention that suggests to you the existence of, or potential for, espionage or terrorism against the U.S. or its allies must be promptly reported by you to the Office of Security.

There should be no doubt in your mind about the reality of the threats. You are now affiliated with the most sensitive agency in government and are expected to exercise vigilance and common sense to protect NSA against these threats.

Originators of correspondence, communications, equipment, or documents within the Agency are responsible for ensuring that the proper classification, downgrading information and, when appropriate, proper caveat notations are assigned to such material. (This includes any handwritten notes which contain classified information). The three levels of classification are Confidential, Secret and Top Secret. The NSA Classification Manual should be used as guidance in determining proper classification. If after review of this document you need assistance, contact the Classification Advisory Officer (CAO) assigned to your organization, or the Information Policy Division (Q43).

Classified information is disseminated only on a strict "need-to-know" basis. The "need-to-know" policy means that classified information will be disseminated only to those individuals who, in addition to possessing a proper clearance, have a requirement to know this information in order to perform their official duties (need-to-know). No person is entitled to classified information solely by virtue of office, position, rank, or security clearance.

All NSA personnel have the responsibility to assert the "need-to-know" policy as part of their responsibility to protect sensitive information. Determination of "need-to-know" is a supervisory responsibility. This means that if there is any doubt in your mind as to an individual's "need-to-know," you should always check with your supervisor before releasing any classified material under your control.

For Official Use Only
Separate from classified information is information or material marked "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" (such as this handbook). This designation is used to identify that official information or material which, although unclassified, is exempt from the requirement for public disclosure of information concerning government activities and which, for a significant reason, should not be given general circulation. Each holder of "FOR OFFICAL USE ONLY" (FOUO) information or material is authorized to disclose such information or material to persons in other departments or agencies of the Executive and Judicial branches when it is determined that the information or material is required to carry our a government function. The recipient must be advised that the information or material is not to be disclosed to the general public. Material which bears the "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" caveat does not come under the regulations governing the protection of classified information. The unauthorized disclosure of information marked "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" does not constitute an unauthorized disclosure of classified defense information. However, Department of Defense and NSA regulations prohibit the unauthorized disclosure of information designated "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY." Appropriate administrative action will be taken to determine responsibility and to apply corrective and/or disciplinary measures in cases of unauthorized disclosure of information which bears the "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" caveat. Reasonable care must be exercised in limiting the dissemination of "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" information. While you may take this handbook home for further study, remember that is does contain "FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY" information which should be protected.

Prepublication Review
All NSA personnel (employees, military assignees, and contractors) must submit for review any planned articles, books, speeches, resumes, or public statements that may contain classified, classifiable, NSA-derived, or unclassified protected information, e.g., information relating to the organization, mission, functions, or activities of NSA. Your obligation to protect this sensitive information is a lifetime one. Even when you resign, retire, or otherwise end your affiliation with NSA, you must submit this type of material for prepublication review. For additional details, contact the Information Policy Division (Q43) for an explanation of prepublication review procedures.

Personnel Security Responsibilities
Perhaps you an recall your initial impression upon entering an NSA facility. Like most people, you probably noticed the elaborate physical security safeguards--fences, concrete barriers, Security Protective Officers, identification badges, etc. While these measures provide a substantial degree of protection for the information housed within our buildings, they represent only a portion of the overall Agency security program. In fact, vast amounts of information leave our facilities daily in the minds of NSA personnel, and this is where our greatest vulnerability lies. Experience has indicated that because of the vital information we work with at NSA, Agency personnel may become potential targets for hostile intelligence efforts. Special safeguards are therefore necessary to protect our personnel.

Accordingly, the Agency has an extensive personnel security program which establishes internal policies and guidelines governing employee conduct and activities. These policies cover a variety of topics, all of which are designed to protect both you and the sensitive information you will gain through your work at NSA.

Association With Foreign Nationals

As a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and by virtue of your access to sensitive information, you are a potential target for hostile intelligence activities carried out by or on behalf of citizens of foreign countries. A policy concerning association with foreign nationals has been established by the Agency to minimize the likelihood that its personnel might become subject to undue influence or duress or targets of hostile activities through foreign relationships.

As an NSA affiliate, you are prohibited from initiating or maintaining associations (regardless of the nature and degree) with citizens or officials of communist-controlled, or other countries which pose a significant threat to the security of the United States and its interests. A comprehensive list of these designated countries is available from your Staff Security Officer or the Security Awareness Division. Any contact with citizens of these countries, no matter how brief or seemingly innocuous, must be reported as soon as possible to your Staff Security Officer (SSO). (Individuals designated as Staff Security Officers are assigned to every organization; a listing of Staff Security Officers can be found at the back of this handbook).

Additionally, close and continuing associations with any non-U.S. citizens which are characterized by ties of kinship, obligation, or affection are prohibited. A waiver to this policy may be granted only under the most exceptional circumstances when there is a truly compelling need for an individual's services or skills and the security risk is negligible.

In particular, a waiver must be granted in advance of a marriage to or cohabitation with a foreign national in order to retain one's access to NSA information. Accordingly, any intent to cohabitate with or marry a non-U.S. citizen must be reported immediately to your Staff Security Officer. If a waiver is granted, future reassignments both at headquarters and overseas may be affected.

The marriage or intended marriage of an immediate family member (parents, siblings, children) to a foreign national must also be reported through your SSO to the Clearance Division (M55).

Casual social associations with foreign nationals (other than those of the designated countries mentioned above) which arise from normal living and working arrangements in the community usually do not have to be reported. During the course of these casual social associations, you are encouraged to extend the usual social amenities. Do not act mysteriously or draw attention to yourself (and possibly to NSA) by displaying an unusually wary attitude.

Naturally, your affiliation with the Agency and the nature of your work should not be discussed. Again, you should be careful not to allow these associations to become close and continuing to the extent that they are characterized by ties of kinship, obligation, or affection.

If at any time you feel that a "casual" association is in any way suspicious, you should report this to your Staff Security Officer immediately. Whenever any doubt exists as to whether or not a situation should be reported or made a matter of record, you should decided in favor of reporting it. In this way, the situation can be evaluated on its own merits, and you can be advised as to your future course of action.

Correspondence With Foreign Nationals
NSA personnel are discouraged from initiating correspondence with individuals who are citizens of foreign countries. Correspondence with citizens of communist-controlled or other designated countries is prohibited. Casual social correspondence, including the "penpal" variety, with other foreign acquaintances is acceptable and need not be reported. If, however, this correspondence should escalate in its frequency or nature, you should report that through your Staff Security Officer to the Clearance Division (M55).

Embassy Visits
Since a significant percentage of all espionage activity is known to be conducted through foreign embassies, consulates, etc., Agency policy discourages visits to embassies, consulates or other official establishments of a foreign government. Each case, however, must be judged on the circumstances involved. Therefore, if you plan to visit a foreign embassy for any reason (even to obtain a visa), you must consult with, and obtain the prior approval of, your immediate supervisor and the Security Awareness Division (M56).

Amateur Radio Activities
Amateur radio (ham radio) activities are known to be exploited by hostile intelligence services to identify individuals with access to classified information; therefore, all licensed operators are expected to be familiar with NSA/CSS Regulation 100-1, "Operation of Amateur Radio Stations" (23 October 1986). The specific limitations on contacts with operators from communist and designated countries are of particular importance. If you are an amateur radio operator you should advise the Security Awareness Division (M56) of your amateur radio activities so that detailed guidance may be furnished to you.

Unofficial Foreign Travel
In order to further protect sensitive information from possible compromise resulting from terrorism, coercion, interrogation or capture of Agency personnel by hostile nations and/or terrorist groups, the Agency has established certain policies and procedures concerning unofficial foreign travel.

All Agency personnel (civilian employees, military assignees, and contractors) who are planning unofficial foreign travel must have that travel approved by submitting a proposed itinerary to the Security Awareness Division (M56) at least 30 working days prior to their planned departure from the United States. Your itinerary should be submitted on Form K2579 (Unofficial Foreign Travel Request). This form provides space for noting the countries to be visited, mode of travel, and dates of departure and return. Your immediate supervisor must sign this form to indicate whether or not your proposed travel poses a risk to the sensitive information, activities, or projects of which you may have knowledge due to your current assignment.

After your supervisor's assessment is made, this form should be forwarded to the Security Awareness Director (M56). Your itinerary will then be reviewed in light of the existing situation in the country or countries to be visited, and a decision for approval or disapproval will be based on this assessment. The purpose of this policy is to limit the risk of travel to areas of the world where a threat may exist to you and to your knowledge of classified Agency activities.

In this context, travel to communist-controlled and other hazardous activity areas is prohibited. A listing of these hazardous activity areas is prohibited. A listing of these hazardous activity areas can be found in Annex A of NSA/CSS Regulation No. 30-31, "Security Requirements for Foreign Travel" (12 June 1987). From time to time, travel may also be prohibited to certain areas where the threat from hostile intelligence services, terrorism, criminal activity or insurgency poses an unacceptable risk to Agency employees and to the sensitive information they possess. Advance travel deposits made without prior agency approval of the proposed travel may result in financial losses by the employee should the travel be disapproved, so it is important to obtain approval prior to committing yourself financially. Questions regarding which areas of the world currently pose a threat should be directed to the Security Awareness Division (M56).

Unofficial foreign travel to Canada, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Mexico does not require prior approval, however, this travel must still be reported using Form K2579. Travel to these areas may be reported after the fact.

While you do not have to report your foreign travel once you have ended your affiliation with the Agency, you should be aware that the risk incurred in travelling to certain areas, from a personal safety and/or counterintelligence standpoint, remains high. The requirement to protect the classified information to which you have had access is a lifetime obligation.

Membership In Organizations
Within the United States there are numerous organizations with memberships ranging from a few to tens of thousands. While you may certainly participate in the activities of any reputable organization, membership in any international club or professional organization/activity with foreign members should be reported through your Staff Security Officer to the Clearance Division (M55). In most cases there are no security concerns or threats to our employees or affiliates. However, the Office of Security needs the opportunity to research the organization and to assess any possible risk to you and the information to which you have access.

In addition to exercising prudence in your choice of organizational affiliations, you should endeavor to avoid participation in public activities of a conspicuously controversial nature because such activities could focus undesirable attention upon you and the Agency. NSA employees may, however, participate in bona fide public affairs such as local politics, so long as such activities do not violate the provisions of the statutes and regulations which govern the political activities of all federal employees. Additional information may be obtained from your Personnel Representative.

Changes In Marital Status/Cohabitation/Names
All personnel, either employed by or assigned to NSA, must advise the Office of Security of any changes in their marital status (either marriage or divorce), cohabitation arrangements, or legal name changes. Such changes should be reported by completing NSA Form G1982 (Report of Marriage/Marital Status Change/Name Change), and following the instructions printed on the form.

Use And Abuse Of Drugs
It is the policy of the National Security Agency to prevent and eliminate the improper use of drugs by Agency employees and other personnel associated with the Agency. The term "drugs" includes all controlled drugs or substances identified and listed in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, as amended, which includes but is not limited to: narcotics, depressants, stimulants, cocaine, hallucinogens ad cannabis (marijuana, hashish, and hashish oil). The use of illegal drugs or the abuse of prescription drugs by persons employed by, assigned or detailed to the Agency may adversely affect the national security; may have a serious damaging effect on the safety and the safety of others; and may lead to criminal prosecution. Such use of drugs either within or outside Agency controlled facilities is prohibited.

Physical Security Policies
The physical security program at NSA provides protection for classified material and operations and ensures that only persons authorized access to the Agency's spaces and classified material are permitted such access. This program is concerned not only with the Agency's physical plant and facilities, but also with the internal and external procedures for safeguarding the Agency's classified material and activities. Therefore, physical security safeguards include Security Protective Officers, fences, concrete barriers, access control points, identification badges, safes, and the compartmentalization of physical spaces. While any one of these safeguards represents only a delay factor against attempts to gain unauthorized access to NSA spaces and material, the total combination of all these safeguards represents a formidable barrier against physical penetration of NSA. Working together with personnel security policies, they provide "security in depth."

The physical security program depends on interlocking procedures. The responsibility for carrying out many of these procedures rests with the individual. This means you, and every person employed by, assign, or detailed to the Agency, must assume the responsibility for protecting classified material. Included in your responsibilities are: challenging visitors in operational areas; determining "need-to-know;" limiting classified conversations to approved areas; following established locking and checking procedures; properly using the secure and non-secure telephone systems; correctly wrapping and packaging classified data for transmittal; and placing classified waste in burn bags.

The NSA Badge
Even before you enter an NSA facility, you have a constant reminder of security--the NSA badge. Every person who enters an NSA installation is required to wear an authorized badge. To enter most NSA facilities your badge must be inserted into an Access Control Terminal at a building entrance and you must enter your Personal Identification Number (PIN) on the terminal keyboard. In the absence of an Access Control Terminal, or when passing an internal security checkpoint, the badge should be held up for viewing by a Security Protective Officer. The badge must be displayed at all times while the individual remains within any NSA installation.

NSA Badges must be clipped to a beaded neck chain. If necessary for the safety of those working in the area of electrical equipment or machinery, rubber tubing may be used to insulate the badge chain. For those Agency personnel working in proximity to other machinery or equipment, the clip may be used to attach the badge to the wearer's clothing, but it must also remain attached to the chain.

After you leave an NSA installation, remove your badge from public view, thus avoiding publicizing your NSA affiliation. Your badge should be kept in a safe place which is convenient enough to ensure that you will be reminded to bring it with you to work. A good rule of thumb is to afford your badge the same protection you give your wallet or your credit cards. DO NOT write your Personal Identification Number on your badge.

If you plan to be away from the Agency for a period of more than 30 days, your badge should be left at the main Visitor Control Center which services your facility.

Should you lose your badge, you must report the facts and circumstances immediately to the Security Operations Center (SOC) (963-3371s/688-6911b) so that your badge PIN can be deactivated in the Access Control Terminals. In the event that you forget your badge when reporting for duty, you may obtain a "non-retention" Temporary Badge at the main Visitor Control Center which serves your facility after a co-worker personally identifies your and your clearance has been verified.

Your badge is to be used as identification only within NSA facilities or other government installations where the NSA badge is recognized. Your badge should never be used outside of the NSA or other government facilities for the purpose of personal identification. You should obtain a Department of Defense identification card from the Civilian Welfare Fund (CWF) if you need to identify yourself as a government employee when applying for "government discounts" offered at various commercial establishments.

Your badge color indicates your particular affiliation with NSA and your level of clearance. Listed below are explanations of the badge colors you are most likely to see:

Green (*) Fully cleared NSA employees and certain military assignees.

Orange (*) (or Gold) Fully cleared representative of other government agencies.

Black (*) Fully cleared contractors or consultants.

Blue Employees who are cleared to the SECRET level while awaiting completion of their processing for full (TS/SI) clearance. These Limited Interim Clearance (LIC) employees are restricted to certain activities while inside a secure area.

Red Clearance level is not specified, so assume the holder is uncleared.
* - Fully cleared status means that the person has been cleared to the Top Secret (TS) level and indoctrinated for Special Intelligence (SI).

All badges with solid color backgrounds (permanent badges) are kept by individuals until their NSA employment or assignment ends. Striped badges ("non-retention" badges) are generally issued to visitors and are returned to the Security Protective Officer upon departure from an NSA facility.

Area Control
Within NSA installations there are generally two types of areas, Administrative and Secure. An Administrative Area is one in which storage of classified information is not authorized, and in which discussions of a classified nature are forbidden. This type of area would include the corridors, restrooms, cafeterias, visitor control areas, credit union, barber shop, and drugstore. Since uncleared, non-NSA personnel are often present in these areas, all Agency personnel must ensure that no classified information is discussed in an Administrative Area.

Classified information being transported within Agency facilities must be placed within envelopes, folders, briefcases, etc. to ensure that its contents or classification markings are not disclosed to unauthorized persons, or that materials are not inadvertently dropped enroute.

The normal operational work spaces within an NSA facility are designated Secure Areas. These areas are approved for classified discussions and for the storage of classified material. Escorts must be provided if it is necessary for uncleared personnel (repairmen, etc.) to enter Secure Areas, an all personnel within the areas must be made aware of the presence of uncleared individuals. All unknown, unescorted visitors to Secure Areas should be immediately challenged by the personnel within the area, regardless of the visitors' clearance level (as indicated by their badge color).

The corridor doors of these areas must be locked with a deadbolt and all classified information in the area must be properly secured after normal working hours or whenever the area is unoccupied. When storing classified material, the most sensitive material must be stored in the most secure containers. Deadbolt keys for doors to these areas must be returned to the key desk at the end of the workday.

For further information regarding Secure Areas, consult the Physical Security Division (M51) or your staff Security Officer.

Items Treated As Classified
For purposes of transportation, storage and destruction, there are certain types of items which must be treated as classified even though they may not contain classified information. Such items include carbon paper, vu-graphs, punched machine processing cards, punched paper tape, magnetic tape, computer floppy disks, film, and used typewriter ribbons. This special treatment is necessary since a visual examination does not readily reveal whether the items contain classified information.

Prohibited Items
Because of the potential security or safety hazards, certain items are prohibited under normal circumstances from being brought into or removed from any NSA installation. These items have been groped into two general classes. Class I prohibited items are those which constitute a threat to the safety and security of NSA/CSS personnel and facilities. Items in this category include:

Firearms and ammunition
Explosives, incendiary substances, radioactive materials, highly volatile materials, or other hazardous materials
Contraband or other illegal substances
Personally owned photographic or electronic equipment including microcomputers, reproduction or recording devices, televisions or radios.
Prescribed electronic medical equipment is normally not prohibited, but requires coordination with the Physical Security Division (M51) prior to being brought into any NSA building.

Class II prohibited items are those owned by the government or contractors which constitute a threat to physical, technical, or TEMPEST security. Approval by designated organizational officials is required before these items can be brought into or removed from NSA facilities. Examples are:

Transmitting and receiving equipment
Recording equipment and media
Telephone equipment and attachments
Computing devices and terminals
Photographic equipment and film
A more detailed listing of examples of Prohibited Items may be obtained from your Staff Security Officer or the Physical Security Division (M51).

Additionally, you may realize that other seemingly innocuous items are also restricted and should not be brought into any NSA facility. Some of these items pose a technical threat; others must be treated as restricted since a visual inspection does not readily reveal whether they are classified. These items include:

Negatives from processed film; slides; vu-graphs
Magnetic media such as floppy disks, cassette tapes, and VCR videotapes
Remote control devices for telephone answering machines

Exit Inspection
As you depart NSA facilities, you will note another physical security safeguard--the inspection of the materials you are carrying. This inspection of your materials, conducted by Security Protective Officers, is designed to preclude the inadvertent removal of classified material. It is limited to any articles that you are carrying out of the facility and may include letters, briefcases, newspapers, notebooks, magazines, gym bags, and other such items. Although this practice may involve some inconvenience, it is conducted in your best interest, as well as being a sound security practice. The inconvenience can be considerably reduced if you keep to a minimum the number of personal articles that you remove from the Agency.

Removal Of Material From NSA Spaces
The Agency maintains strict controls regarding the removal of material from its installations, particularly in the case of classified material.

Only under a very limited and official circumstances classified material be removed from Agency spaces. When deemed necessary, specific authorization is required to permit an individual to hand carry classified material out of an NSA building to another Secure Area. Depending on the material and circumstances involved, there are several ways to accomplish this.

A Courier Badge authorizes the wearer, for official purposes, to transport classified material, magnetic media, or Class II prohibited items between NSA facilities. These badges, which are strictly controlled, are made available by the Physical Security Division (M51) only to those offices which have specific requirements justifying their use.

An Annual Security Pass may be issued to individuals whose official duties require that they transport printed classified materials, information storage media, or Class II prohibited items to secure locations within the local area. Materials carried by an individual who displays this pass are subject to spot inspection by Security Protective Officers or other personnel from the Office of Security. It is not permissible to use an Annual Security Pass for personal convenience to circumvent inspection of your personal property by perimeter Security Protective Officers.

If you do not have access to a Courier Badge and you have not been issued an Annual Security Pass, you may obtain a One-Time Security Pass to remove classified materials/magnetic media or admit or remove prohibited items from an NSA installation. These passes may be obtained from designated personnel in your work element who have been given authority to issue them. The issuing official must also contact the Security Operations Center (SOC) to obtain approval for the admission or removal of a Class I prohibited item.

When there is an official need to remove government property which is not magnetic media, or a prohibited or classified item, a One-Time Property Pass is used. This type of pass (which is not a Security Pass) may be obtained from your element custodial property officer. A Property Pass is also to be used when an individual is removing personal property which might be reasonably be mistaken for unclassified Government property. This pass is surrendered to the Security Protective Officer at the post where the material is being removed. Use of this pass does not preclude inspection of the item at the perimeter control point by the Security Protective Officer or Security professionals to ensure that the pass is being used correctly.

External Protection Of Classified Information
On those occasions when an individual must personally transport classified material between locations outside of NSA facilities, the individual who is acting as the courier must ensure that the material receives adequate protection. Protective measures must include double wrapping and packaging of classified information, keeping the material under constant control, ensuring the presence of a second appropriately cleared person when necessary, and delivering the material to authorized persons only. If you are designated as a courier outside the local area, contact the Security Awareness Division (M56) for your courier briefing.

Even more basic than these procedures is the individual security responsibility to confine classified conversations to secure areas. Your home, car pool, and public places are not authorized areas to conduct classified discussions--even if everyone involved in he discussion possesses a proper clearance and "need-to-know." The possibility that a conversation could be overheard by unauthorized persons dictates the need to guard against classified discussions in non-secure areas.

Classified information acquired during the course of your career or assignment to NSA may not be mentioned directly, indirectly, or by suggestion in personal diaries, records, or memoirs.

Reporting Loss Or Disclosure Of Classified Information
The extraordinary sensitivity of the NSA mission requires the prompt reporting of any known, suspected, or possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information, or the discovery that classified information may be lost, or is not being afforded proper protection. Any information coming to your attention concerning the loss or unauthorized disclosure of classified information should be reported immediately to your supervisor, your Staff Security Officer, or the Security Operations Center (SOC).

Use Of Secure And Non-Secure Telephones
Two separate telephone systems have been installed in NSA facilities for use in the conduct of official Agency business: the secure telephone system (gray telephone) and the outside, non-secure telephone system (black telephone). All NSA personnel must ensure that use of either telephone system does not jeopardize the security of classified information.

The secure telephone system is authorized for discussion of classified information. Personnel receiving calls on the secure telephone may assume that the caller is authorized to use the system. However, you must ensure that the caller has a "need-to-know" the information you will be discussing.

The outside telephone system is only authorized for unclassified official Agency business calls. The discussion of classified information is not permitted on this system. Do not attempt to use "double-talk" in order to discuss classified information over the non-secure telephone system.

In order to guard against the inadvertent transmission of classified information over a non-secure telephone, and individual using the black telephone in an area where classified activities are being conducted must caution other personnel in the area that the non-secure telephone is in use. Likewise, you should avoid using the non-secure telephone in the vicinity of a secure telephone which is also in use.


Security Resources
In the fulfillment of your security responsibilities, you should be aware that there are many resources available to assist you. If you have any questions or concerns regarding security at NSA or your individual security responsibilities, your supervisor should be consulted. Additionally, Staff Security Officers are appointed to the designated Agency elements to assist these organizations in carrying out their security responsibilities. There is a Staff Security Officer assigned to each organization; their phone numbers are listed at the back of this handbook. Staff Security Officers also provide guidance to and monitor the activities of Security Coordinators and Advisors (individuals who, in addition to their operational duties within their respective elements, assist element supervisors or managers in discharging security responsibilities).

Within the Office of Security, the Physical Security Division (M51) will offer you assistance in matters such as access control, security passes, clearance verification, combination locks, keys, identification badges, technical security, and the Security Protective Force. The Security Awareness Division (M56) provides security guidance and briefings regarding unofficial foreign travel, couriers, special access, TDY/PCS, and amateur radio activities. The Industrial and Field Security Division (M52) is available to provide security guidance concerning NSA contractor and field site matters.

The Security Operations Center (SOC) is operated by two Security Duty Officers (SDOs), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The SDO, representing the Office of Security, provides a complete range of security services to include direct communications with fire and rescue personnel for all Agency area facilities. The SDO is available to handle any physical or personnel problems that may arise, and if necessary, can direct your to the appropriate security office that can assist you. After normal business hours, weekends, and holidays, the SOC is the focal point for all security matters for all Agency personnel and facilities (to include Agency field sites and contractors). The SOC is located in Room 2A0120, OPS 2A building and the phone numbers are 688-6911(b), 963-3371(s).

However, keep in mind that you may contact any individual or any division within the Office of Security directly. Do not hesitate to report any information which may affect the security of the Agency's mission, information, facilities or personnel.

Security-Related Services
In addition to Office of Security resources, there are a number of professional, security-related services available for assistance in answering your questions or providing the services which you require.

The Installations and Logistics Organization (L) maintains the system for the collection and destruction of classified waste, and is also responsible for the movement and scheduling of material via NSA couriers and the Defense Courier Service (DCS). Additionally, L monitors the proper addressing, marking, and packaging of classified material being transmitted outside of NSA; maintains records pertaining to receipt and transmission of controlled mail; and issues property passes for the removal of unclassified property.

The NSA Office of Medical Services (M7) has a staff of physicians, clinical psychologists and an alcoholism counselor. All are well trained to help individuals help themselves in dealing with their problems. Counseling services, with referrals to private mental health professionals when appropriate, are all available to NSA personnel. Appointments can be obtained by contacting M7 directly. When an individual refers himself/herself, the information discussed in the counseling sessions is regarded as privileged medical information and is retained exclusively in M7 unless it pertains to the national security.

Counselling interviews are conducted by the Office of Civilian Personnel (M3) with any civilian employee regarding both on and off-the-job problems. M3 is also available to assist all personnel with the personal problems seriously affecting themselves or members of their families. In cases of serious physical or emotional illness, injury, hospitalization, or other personal emergencies, M3 informs concerned Agency elements and maintains liaison with family members in order to provide possible assistance. Similar counselling services are available to military assignees through Military Personnel (M2).


M51 PHYSICAL SECURITY 963-6651s/688-8293b (FMHQ)
968-8101s/859-6411b (FANX)

CONFIRM and badges Prohibited Items
Locks, keys, safes and alarms SOC (963-3371s/688-6911b)
Security/vehicle passes NSA facility protection and compliance
Visitor Control
Red/blue seal areas New Construction
Pass Clearances (963-4780s/688-6759b)


Security at contractor field site facilities
Verification of classified mailing addresses for contractor facilities

M53 INVESTIGATIONS 982-7914s/859-6464b

Personnel Interview Program (PIP) Reinvestigations
Military Interview Program (MIP) Special investigations

M54 COUNTERINTELLIGENCE 982-7832s/859-6424b

Security counterintelligence analysis Security compromises

M55 CLEARANCES 982-7900s/859-4747b

Privacy Act Officer (For review of security files) Continued SCI access
Contractor/applicant processing Military access

M56 SECURITY AWARENESS 963-3273s/688-6535b

Security indoctrinations/debriefings Embassy visits
Associations with foreign nationals Briefings (foreign travel,
Security Week ham radio, courier,
Security posters, brochures, etc. LIC, PCS, TDY,
special access, etc.)
Foreign travel approval
Military contractor orientation
Special Access Office (963-5466s/688-6353b)

M57 POLYGRAPH 982-7844s/859-6363b

Polygraph interviews

M509 MANAGEMENT AND POLICY STAFF 982-7885s/859-6350b


Element Room Secure/Non-Secure
A 2A0852B 963-4650/688-7044
B 3W099 963-4559/688-7141
D/Q/J/N/U 2B8066G 963-4496/688-6614
E/M D3B17 968-8050/859-6669
G 9A195 963-5033/688-7902
K 2B5136 963-1978/688-5052
L SAB4 977-7230/688-6194
P 2W091 963-5302/688-7303
R B6B710 968-4073/859-4736
S/V/Y/C/X C2A55 972-2144/688-7549
T 2B5040 963-4543/688-7364
W 1C181 963-5970/688-7061


Agency Anonymity 968-8251/859-4381
Alcohol Rehabilitation Program 963-5420/688-7312
Cipher Lock Repair 963-1221/688-7119
Courier Schedules (local) 977-7197/688-7403
Defense Courier Service 977-7117/688-7826
Disposal of Classified Waste
- Paper only 972-2150/688-6593
- Plastics, Metal, Film, etc 963-4103/688-7062
Locksmith 963-3585/688-7233
Mail Dissemination and Packaging 977-7117/688-7826
Medical Center (Fort Meade) 963-5429/688-7263
(FANX) 968-8960/859-6667
(Airport Square) 982-7800/859-6155
NSA/CSS Information Policy Division 963-5825/688-6527
Personnel Assistance
- Civilian 982-7835/859-6577
- Air Force 963-3239/688-7980
- Army 963-3739/688-6393
- Navy 963-3439/688-7325
Property Passes (unclassified material) 977-7263/688-7800
Psychological Services 963-5429/688-7311


ARFCOS Armed Forces Courier Service (now known as DCS)
AWOL Absent Without Leave
CAO Classification Advisory Officer
COB Close of Business
CWF Civilian Welfare Fund
DCS Defense Courier Service (formerly known as ARFCOS)
DoD Department of Defense
EOD Enter on Duty
FOUO For Official Use Only
M2 Office of Military Personnel
M3 Office of Civilian Personnel
M5 Office of Security
M7 Office of Medical Services
NCS National Cryptologic School
PCS Permanent Change of Station
PIN Personal Identification Number
Q43 Information Policy Division
SDO Security Duty Officer
SOC Security Operations Center
SPO Security Protective Officer
SSO Staff Security Officer
TDY Temporary Duty
UFT Unofficial Foreign Travel

The information you have just read is designed to serve as a guide to assist you in the conduct of your security responsibilities. However, it by no means describes the extent of your obligation to protect information vital to the defense of our nation. Your knowledge of specific security regulations is part of a continuing process of education and experience. This handbook is designed to provide the foundation of this knowledge and serve as a guide to the development of an attitude of security awareness.

In the final analysis, security is an individual responsibility. As a participant in the activities of the National Security Agency organization, you are urged to be always mindful of the importance of the work being accomplished by NSA and of the unique sensitivity of the Agency's operations.

IP Logged

Senior Member

Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-21-2003 11:53 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
To Honored Members:

The recent posts that I have submitted are done with the intent of first informing those of you that were never aware of the United Nations charter or the Paris Convention, or NSA security guidelines and other information that I felt would be a precursor to disclosing the core of the HAARP and its co-relationship with Chemtrails.
Some of you may find that this information is redundant but if you really read thru it you will find that you will need to understand the rules before you present. For example if you are going to expose chemtrails the best forum would be the UN to gain some attention. Well you need to study its rules so that you can make decisions based on knowledge and not have the dependencies on others that may not have your best interests at heart.
UFO’s and abductions, these are NSA issues and you need to understand how NSA operates. Some of this information may seem not important to you now, but I assure you that there are others that view this website that may not know. In Intelligence gathering you cannot make a mistake and you never compromise!
There are many of you that have been directly affected by chemtrails and many of you have been abducted by beings from either another part of space-time or from wormholes or from current surroundings. You all need answers!
Since 1968, with Project Blue Book many people within the rank and file have rejected answers to your questions and there are countless websites that promote and spread info on paranormal activities, magnetic fixes, etc. Just look at the pop-up windows on this site and see the capitalists making money on our curiosities and concerns.
Some take advantage of our fears and post comments on virus in your computer, phone taps, Indians in the trees at night, and other paranoid delusions that subliminally affect some of you.
Over the years have you not noticed that scientists and others that have claimed to have answers either disappear from view or be murdered, or just plan hoax creators?
Well it goes on.
Fact: HAARP exists in Alaska, Chemtrails globally, unmarked aircraft that dumps chemical waste in the upper atmosphere, HAARP will exist in Florida a second HAARP system.
Some of you should consider starting a grassroots program in your own home by being proactive and aware of the chemicals that you use and flush done the toilet each day or wash down your driveway. We all should be considerate of our neighbors and ourselves.
I for one will guide us into understanding HAARP. And I will bring in others that will help me to educate on chemtrails.

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Gentlemen and Fellow Physicists of America:

We meet to-day on an occasion which marks an epoch in the history of physics in America ; may the future show that it also marks an epoch in the history of the science which this society is organized to cultivate! For we meet here in the interest of a science above all sciences, which deals with the foundation of the Universe, with the constitution of matter from which everything in the Universe is made, and with the ether of space by which alone the various portions of matter forming the Universe affect each other even at such distances as we may never expect to traverse whatever the progress of our science in the future.

We, who have devoted our lives to the solution of problems connected with physics, now meet together to help each other and to forward the interests of the subject which we love. A subject which appeals most strongly to the better instinct of our nature, and the problems of which tax our minds to the limit of their capacity and suggest the grandest and noblest ideas of which they are capable.

In a country where the doctrine of the equal rights of man has been distorted to mean the equality of man in other respects, we form a small and unique body of men, a new variety of the human race, as one of our greatest scientists calls it, whose views of what constitutes the greatest achievement in life are very different from those around us. In this respect we form all aristocracy, not of wealth, not of pedigree, but of intellect and of ideals, holding him in the highest respect who adds the most to our knowledge or who strives after it as the highest good.

Thus we meet together for mutual sympathy and the interchange of knowledge, and may we do so ever with appreciation of the benefits to ourselves and possibly to our science. Above all, let us cultivate the idea of the dignity of our pursuit, so that this feeling may sustain us in the midst of a world which gives its highest praise, not to the investigation in the pure etherial physics which our society is formed to cultivate, but to the one who uses it for satisfying, the physical rather than the intellectual needs of mankind. He who makes two blades of grass grow where one grew before is the benefactor of mankind; but he who obscurely worked to find the laws of such growth is the intellectual superior as well as the greater benefactor of the two.

How stands our country, then, in this respect? My answer must still be now as it was fifteen years ago, that much of the intellect of the country is still wasted in the pursuit of so-called practical science which ministers to our physical needs and but little thought and money is given to the grander portion of the subject which appeals to our intellect alone. But your presence here gives evidence that such a condition is not to last forever.

Even in the past we have the names of a few whom scientists throughout the world delight to honor. Franklin, who almost revolutionized the science of electricity by a few simple but profound experiments. Count Rumford, whose experiments almost demonstrated the nature of heat. Henry, who might have done much for the progress of physics had he published more fully the results of his investigations. Mayer, whose simple and ingenious experiments have been a source of pleasure and profit to many. This is the meager list of those whom death allows me to speak of and who have earned mention here by doing something for the progress of our science. And yet the record has been searched for more than a hundred years. How different had I started to record those who have made useful and beneficial inventions!

But I know, when I look in the faces of those before me, where the eager intellect and high purpose sit enthroned on bodies possessing the vigor and strength of youth, that the writer of a hundred years hence can no longer throw such a reproach upon our country. Nor can we blame those who have gone before us. The progress of every science shows us the condition of its growth. Very few persons, if isolated in a semi-civilized land, have either the desire or the opportunity of pursuing the higher branches of science. Even if they should be able to do so, their influence on their science depends upon what they publish and make known to the world. A hermit philosopher we can imagine might make many useful discoveries. Yet, if he keeps them to himself, he can never claim to have benefited the world in any degree. His unpublished results are his private gain, but the world is no better off until he has made them known in language strong enough to call attention to them and to convince the world of their truth. Thus, to encourage the growth of any science, the best thing we call do is to meet together in its interest, to discuss its problems, to criticise each other's work and, best of all, to provide means by which the better portion of it may be made known to the world. Furthermore, let us encourage discrimination in our thoughts and work. Let us recognize the eras when great thoughts have been introduced into our subject and let us honor the great men who introduced and proved them correct. Let us forever reject such foolish ideas as the equality of mankind and carefully, give tile greater credit to the greater man. So, in choosing the subjects for our investigation, let us, if possible, work upon those subjects which will finally give us all advanced knowledge of some great subject. I am aware that we cannot always do this: our ideas will often flow in side channels: but, with the great problems of the Universe before us, we may sometime be able to do our share toward the greater end.

What is matter; what is gravitation ; what is ether and the radiation through it ; what is electricity and magnetism; how are these connected together and what is their relation to heat? These are tile greater problems of the universe. But infinitely smaller problems we must attack and solve before we call even guess at the solution of the greater ones.

In our attitude toward these greater problems how do we stand and what is the foundation of our knowledge?

Newton and the great array of astronomers who have succeeded him have proved that, within planetary distances, matter attracts all others with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance. But what sort of proof have we of this law? It is derived from astronomical observations on the planetary orbits. It agrees very well within these immense spaces ; but where is the evidence that the law holds for smaller distances? We measure the lunar distance and the size of the earth and compare the force at distance with the force of gravitation on the earth's surface. But to do this we must compare the matter in the earth with that in the Sun. This we call only do by assuming the law to be proved. Again, in descending from the earth's gravitation to that of two small bodies, as in the Cavendish experiment, we assume the law to hold and deduce the mass of the earth in terms of our unit of mass. Hence, when we say that the mass of the earth is 5 1/2 times that of an equal volume of water we assume the law of gravitation to be that of Newton. Thus a proof of the law from planetary down to terrestrial distances is physically impossible.

Again, that portion of the law which says that gravitational attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter, which is the same as saying that the attraction of one body by another is not affected by the presence of a third, the feeble proof that we give by weighing bodies in a balance in different positions with respect to each other cannot be accepted on a larger scale. When we can tear the sun into two portions and prove that either of the two halves attracts half as much as the whole, then we shall have a proof worth mentioning.

Then as to the relation of gravitation and time what can we say? Can we for a moment suppose that two bodies moving through space with great velocities have their gravitation unaltered ? I think not. Neither can we accept Laplace's proof that the force of gravitation acts instantaneously through space, for we can readily imagine some compensating features unthought of by Laplace.

How little we know then of this law which has been under observation for two hundred years!

Then as to matter itself how have our views changed and how are they constantly changing. The round hard atom of Newton which God alone could break into pieces has become a molecule composed of many atoms and each of these smaller atoms has become so elastic that after vibrating 100,000 times its amplitude of vibration is scarcely diminished. It has become so complicated that it can vibrate with as many thousand notes. We cover the atom with patches of electricity here and there and make of it a system compared with which the planetary system, nay the universe itself, is simplicity. Nay more: some of us even claim the power, which Newton attributed to God alone, of breaking the atom into smaller pieces whose size is left to the imagination. Where, then, is that person who ignorantly sneers at the study of matter as a material and gross study? Where, again, is that man with gifts so God-like and mind so elevated that he can attack and solve its problem?

To all matter we attribute two properties, gravitation and inertia Without these two matter cannot exist. The greatest of the natural laws states that the power of gravitational attraction is proportional to the mass of the body. This law of Newton, almost neglected in the thoughts of physicists, undoubtedly has vast import of the very deepest meaning. Shall it mean that all matter is finally constructed of uniform and similar primordial atoms, or can we find some other explaination?

That the molecules of matter are not round, we know from the facts of crystallography and the action of matter in rotating the plane of polarization of light.

That portions of the molecules and even of the atoms are electrically charged, we know from electrolysis, the action of gases in a vacuum tube, and from the Zeeman effect.

That some of them act like little magnets, we know from the magnetic action of iron, nickel, and cobalt.

That they are elastic the spectrum shows, and that the vibrating portion carries the electric charge with it is shown by the Zeeman effect.

Here, then, we have made quite a start in our problem: but how far are we from the complete solution? How can we imagine the material of which ordinary or primordial atoms are made, dealing as we do only with aggregations of atoms alone? Forever beyond our slight, vibrating an almost infinite number of times in a second, moving hither and you with restless energy at all temperatures beyond the absolute zero of temperature, it is certainly a wonderful feat of human reason and imagination that we know as much as we do at present. Encouraged by these results, let us not linger too long in their contemplation but press forward to the new discoveries. which await us in the future.

Then as to electricity, the subtle spirit of tile amber, the demon who reached out his gluttonous arms to draw in the light bodies within his reach, the fluid which could run through metals with the greatest ease but could be stopped by a frail piece of glass! Where is it now? Vanished, thrown oil the waste heap of our discarded theories, to be replaced by a far nobler and exalted one of action in the ether of space.

And so we are brought to consider that other great entity-the ether : filling all space without limit, we imagine the ether to be the only means by which two portions of matter distant from each other can have any mutual action. By its means we imagine every atom in the universe to be bound to every other atom by the force of gravitation and often by the force of magnetic and electric action, and we conceive that it alone conveys the vibratory motion of each atom or molecule out into space to be ever lost in endless radiation, passing out into infinite space or absorbed by some other atoms which happen to be in its path. By it all electromagnetic energy is conveyed, from the feeble attraction of the rubbed amber, through the many thousand horse-power conveyed by the electric wires from Niagara, to the mighty rush of energy always flowing from the Sun, in a flood of radiation. Actions feeble and actions mighty, from intermolecular distances through inter-planetary and inter-stellar distances until we reach the, mighty distances which bound the Universe-all have their being in this wonderous ether.

And yet, however wonderful it may be, its laws are far more simple than those of matter. Every wave in it, whatever its length or intensity, proceeds onwards in it according to well known laws, all with the same speed, unaltered in direction, from its source in electrified matter to the confines of the Universe, unimpaired in energy unless it is disturbed by the presence of matter. However the waves may cross each other, each proceeds by itself without interference with the others.

So with regard to gravitation, we have no evidence that the presence of a third body affects the mutual attraction of two other bodies, or that the presence of a third quantity of electricity affects the mutual attraction of two other quantities. The same for magnetism.

For this reason the laws of gravitation and of electric and magnetic action including radiation are the simplest of all laws when we confine them to a so-called vacuum, but become more and more complicated when we treat of them in space containing matter.

Subject the ether to immense electrostatic magnetic or gravitational forces and we find absolutely no signs of its breaking down or even a change in its properties. Set it into vibration by means of an intensely hot body like that of the sun and it conveys many thousand horsepower for each square foot of surface as quietly and with apparently as unchanged laws as if it were conveying the energy of a tallow dip.

Again, subject a millimeter of ether to the stress of many thousand, nay even a million, volts and yet we see no signs of breaking down.

Hence the properties of the ether are of ideal simplicity and lead to the simplest of natural laws. All forces which act at a distance always obey the law of the inverse square of the distance and we have also the attraction of any number of parts placed near each other equal to the arithmetical sum of the attractions when those parts are separated. So also the simple law of etherial waves which has been mentioned above.

At the present time, through the labors of Maxwell supplemented by those of Hertz and others, we have arrived at the great generalization that all wave disturbances in the ether are electromagnetic in their nature. We know of little or no etherial disturbance which can be set up by the motion of matter alone: the matter must be electrified in order to have sufficient hold on the ether to communicate its motion to the ether. The Zeeman effect even shows this to be the case where molecules are concerned and when the period of vibration is immensely great. Indeed the experiment on the magnetic action of electric convection shows the same thing. By, electrifying a disc in motion it appears as if the disc holds fast to the ether and drags it with it, thus setting up the peculiar etherial motion known as magnetism.

Have we not another case of a similar nature when a huge gravitational mass like that of the earth revolves on its axis? Has not matter a feeble hold on the ether sufficient to produce the earth's magnetism?

But the experiment of Lodge to detect such in action apparently showed that it must be very feeble. Might not his experiment have succeeded had he used an electrified revolving disc?

To detect something dependent on the relative motion of the ether and matter has been and is the great desire of physicists. But we always find that, with one possible exception, there is always some compensating feature which renders our efforts useless. This one experiment is the aberration of light, but even here Stokes has shown that it may be explained in either of two ways: first, that the earth moves through the ether of space without disturbing it, .and second, if it carries the ether with it by a kind of motion called irrotational. Even here, however, the amount of action probably depends upon relative motion of the luminous source to the recipient telescope.

So the principle of Doppler depends also on this relative motion and is independent of the ether.

The result of the experiments of Foucault on the passage of light through moving water can no longer be interpreted as due to the partial movement of the ether with the moving water, an inference due to imperfect theory alone. The experiment of Lodge, who attempted to set the ether in motion by a rapidly rotating disc, showed no such result.

The experiment of Michelson to detect the etherial wind, although carried to the extreme of accuracy, also failed to detect any relative motion of the matter and the ether.

But matter with an electrical charge holds fast to the ether and moves it in the manner required for magnetic action.

When electrified bodies move together through space or with reference to each other we can only follow their mutual actions through very slow and uniform velocities. When they move with velocities comparable with that of light, equal to it or even beyond it, we calculate their mutual actions or action on the ether only by the light of our imagination unguided by experiment. The conclusions of J. J. Thomson, Heaviside, and Hertz are all results of the imagination and they all rest upon assumptions more or less reasonable but always assumptions. A mathematical investigation always obeys the law of the conservation of knowledge: we never get out more from it than we put in. The knowledge may be changed in form, it may be clearer and more exactly stated, but the total amount of the knowledge of nature given out by the investigation is the same as we started with. Hence we can never predict the result in the case of velocities beyond our reach, and such calculations as the velocity of the cathode rays from their electromagnetic action has a great element of uncertainty which we should do well to remember.

Indeed, when it comes to exact knowledge, the limits are far more circumscribed.

How is it, then, that we hear physicists and others constantly stating what will happen beyond these limits? Take velocities, for instance, such as that of a material body moving with the velocity of light. There is no known process by which such a velocity can be obtained even though the body fell from ,in infinite distance upon the largest aggregation of matter in the Universe. If we electrify it, as in the cathode rays, its properties are so changed that the matter properties are completely masked by the electromagnetic.

It is a common error which young physicists are apt to fall into to obtain a law, a curve, or a mathematical expression for given experimental limits and then to apply it to points outside those limits. This is sometimes called extrapolation. Such a process, unless carefully guarded, ceases to be a reasoning process and becomes one of pure imagination specially liable to error when the distance is too great.

But it is not my purpose to enter into detail. What I have given suffices, to show how little we know of the profounder questions. involved in our subject.

It is a curious fact that, leaving minds tending to the infinite, with imaginations unlimited by time and space, the limits of our exact knowledge are very small indeed. In time we are limited by a few hundred or possible thousand years: indeed the limit in our science is far less than the smaller of these periods. In space we have exact knowledge limited to portions of our earth's surface and a mile or so below the surface, together with what little we can learn; from looking through powerful telescopes into the space beyond. In temperature our knowledge extends from near the absolute zero to that of the sun, but exact knowledge is far more limited. In pressures we go from the Crookse vacuum still containing myriads of flying atoms to pressures limited by the strength of steel, but still very minute compared with the pressure at the center of the earth and sun, where the hardest steel would flow like the most limpid water. In velocities we are limited to a few miles per second. In forces to possibly 100 tons to the square inch. In mechanical rotations to t few hundred times per second.

All the facts which we have considered, the liability to error in whatever direction we go, the infirmity of our minds in their reasoning power, the fallibility of witnesses and experimenters, lead the scientist to be specially skeptical with reference to any statement made to him or any so-called knowledge which may be brought to his attention. The facts and theories of our science are so much more certain than those of history, of the testimony of ordinary people on which the facts of ordinary history or of legal evidence rest, or of the value of medicines to which we trust when we are ill, indeed to the whole fabric of supposed truth by which an ordinary person guides his belief and the actions of his life, that it may seem ominous and strange if what I have said of the imperfections of the knowledge of physics is correct. How shall we regulate our mind with respect to it: there is only one way that I know of and that is to avoid the discontinuity of the ordinary, indeed the so-called cultivated legal mind. There is no such thing as absolute truth and absolute falsehood. The scientific mind should never recognize the perfect truth or the perfect falsehood of any supposed theory, or observation. It should carefully weigh the chances of truth and error and grade each in its proper position along the line joining absolute truth and absolute error.

The ordinary crude mind has only two compartments, one for truth and one for error; indeed the contents of the two compartments are sadly mixed in most cases ; the ideal scientific mind, however, has an infinite number. Each theory or law is in its proper compartment indicating the probability, of its truth. As a new fact arrives the scientist changes it from one compartment to another so as, if possible, to always keep it in its proper relation to truth and error. Thus the fluid nature of electricity was once in a compartment near the truth. Faraday's and Maxwell's researches have now caused us to move it to a compartment nearly up to that -of absolute error.

So the law of gravitation within planetary distances is far toward absolute truth, but may still need amending before it is advanced farther in that direction.

The ideal scientific mind, therefore, must always be held in a state of balance which the slightest new evidence may change in one direction or another. It is in a constant state of skepticism, knowing full well that nothing is certain. It is above all an agnostic with respect to all facts and theories of science as well as to all other so-called beliefs and theories.

Yet it would be folly to reason from this that we need not guide our life according to the approach to knowledge that we possess. Nature is inexorable; it punishes the child who unknowingly steps off a precipice quite as severely as the grown scientist who steps over, with full knowledge of all the laws of falling bodies and the chances of their being correct. Both fall to the bottom and in their fall obey the gravitational laws of inorganic matter, slightly modified by the muscular contortions of tile falling object, but not in any degree changed by the previous belief of the person. Natural laws there probably are, rigid and unchanging ones at that. Understand them and they are beneficent: we can use them for our purposes and make them the slaves of our desires. Misunderstand them and they are monsters who may grind us to powder or crush us in the dust. Nothing is asked of us as to our belief: they, act unswervingly and we must understand them or suffer the consequences. Our only course, then, is to act according to the chances of our knowing the right laws. If we act correctly, right; if we act incorrectly, we suffer. If we are ignorant we die. What greater fool, then, than he who states that belief is of no consequence provided it is sincere.

An only child, a beloved wife, lies on a bed of illness. The physician says that the disease is mortal; a minute plant called a microbe has obtained entrance into the body and is growing at the expense of its tissues, forming deadly poisons in the blood or destroying some vital organ. The physician looks on without being able to do anything. Daily he comes and notes the failing strength of his patient and daily the patient goes downward until be rests in his grave. But why has the physician allowed this? Can we doubt that there is a remedy which shall kill the microbe or neutralize its poison? Why, then, has he not used it ? He is employed to cure but has failed. His bill we cheerfully pay because he has done his best and given a chance of cure. The answer is ignorance. The remedy is yet unknown. The physician is waiting for others to discover it or perhaps is experimenting in a crude and unscientific manner to find it. Is not the inference correct, then, that the world has been paying the wrong class of men? Would not this ignorance have been dispelled had the proper money been used in the past to dispel it? Such deaths some people consider an act of God. What blashemy to attribute to God that which is due to our own and our ancestors' selfishness in not founding institutions for medical research in sufficient number and with sufficient means to discover the truth. Such deaths are murder. Thus the present generation suffers for the sins of the past and we die because our ancestors dissipated their wealth in armies and navies, in the foolish pomp and circumstance of society, and neglected to provide us with a knowledge of natural laws. In this sense they were the murderers and robbers of future generations of unborn millions, and have made the world a charnel house and place of mourning where peace and happiness might have been. Only their ignorance of what they were doing can be their excuse, but this excuse puts them in the class of boors and savages who act according to selfish desire and not to reason and to the calls of duty. Let the present generation take warning that this reproach be not cast on it, for it cannot plead ignorance in this respect.

This illustration from the department of medicine I have given because it appeals to all. But all the sciences are linked together and must advance in concert. The human body is a chemical and physical problem, and these sciences must advance before we can conquer disease.

But the true lover of physics needs no such spur to his actions. The cure of disease is a very important object and nothing call be nobler than a life devoted to its cure.

The aims of the physicist, however, are in part purely intellectual: he strives to understand the Universe on account of the intellectual pleasure derived from the pursuit, but he is upheld in it by the knowledge that the study of nature's secrets is the ordained method by which the greatest good and happiness shall finally come to the human race.

Where, then, are the great laboratories of research in this city, in this country, nay, in the world? We see a few miserble structures here and there occupied by a few starving professors who are nobly striving to do the best with the feeble means at their disposal. But where in the world is the institute of pure research in any department of science with an income of $100,000,000 per year. Where call the discoverer in pure science earn more than the wages of a day laborer or cook? But $100,000,000 per year is but the price of an army or of a navy designed to kill other people. Just think of it, that one per cent of this sum seems to most people too great to save our children and descendants from misery and even death!

But the twentieth century is near-may we not hope for better things before its end? May we not hope to influence the public in this direction?

Let us go forward, then, with confidence in the dignity of our pursuit. Let us hold our heads high with a pure conscience while we seek the truth, and may the American Physical Society do its share now and in generations yet to come in trying to unravel the great problem of the constitution and laws of the Universe.

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272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-21-2003 05:23 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text) Standardized
Nicol, Colin. The Biology of Animals. London: Pitman, 1970: 407. "... from bottlenose dolphin pitch from 7,000 c/s - 5,000 c/s. Frequencies are in sonic range from 1 kc/s - 120 kc/s" 1 - 120 kHz
Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Release 6. USA: Software Toolworks, 1993. "... frequency between 1 and 120 kc/s." 1 - 120 kHz
Stenuit, Robert. The Dolphin: Cousin to Man. New York: Sterling, 1969: 48-49. "... up to frequencies 10 times higher than a man can hear. 100 cycles/sec to 150,000 cycles/sec." 0.1 - 150 kHz
Norris, Kenneth. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Los Angeles: University of California, 1966: 503-504 "... harmonics region of frequency was from 1 kc/s to 164 kc/s" 1 - 164 kHz
Montagu, Ashley. The Dolphin in History. Los Angeles: University of California, 1963: 43. "... frequencies from 8 kc/s to at least 200 kilocycles." 8 - 200 kHz
Howlett, Rory. "Flipper's Secret." New Scientist. 2088 (28 June 1997), 34-39. "... frequency range between 20,000 and 120,000 cycles per second" 20 - 120 kHz

Most marine dolphins have a large repertoire of sounds. These include pulsed sounds of two general types: those used for echolocation (SONAR) and those emitted in emotional states. Dolphins also emit pure tone sounds called whistles and chirps. Each individual has its own unique whistle that serves to distinguish who and where the whistle is coming from. The loudness and the duration of the whistle are also important.

People are constantly relying on the scientists and the writers of published references and textbooks as well as topic specific books for the "accepted values" of many things. It is quite ironic to find so many variations and inconsistencies among these values.

The low end ranges from 100 Hz to 8,000 Hz with three sources agreeing on a value of 1,000 Hz. The higher end of the range was more varying listing upper frequencies of 120,000 (two sources), 150,000, 164,000 and 200,000 Hz. One should seek the standard deviation of the machinery used before stating which is wrong and which is correct. The machine deals with large quantities and therefore what sounds like a big difference can be considered by scientists to be minimal.

Many reasons can be listed as to why these facts differ. As the advancements in science and machinery took place, the tools used to measure the frequencies may have changed in their sensitivity and accuracy. One also must take into consideration that all the scientists might not have been using the same type of dolphin. Variations in the location of the measurements, the size of the dolphin, the time of year, the gender, and the age of the dolphin are all variables that may have affected the results.

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posted 08-21-2003 05:26 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
RADAR and SONAR - A Primer for the Geophysically-Challenged

(Reproduced from the Hawaii Centre for Vulcanology Newsletter 2 No. 1, December 1994)

Remote sensing tools such as radar and sonar allow us to map topography and surficial characteristics of volcanoes and other geologic features in inaccessible (or cloud-covered) locations, including other planets and the seafloor. The following is a brief introduction and comparison of these two systems for those who have familiarity with one but not the other, or who sometimes use radar/sonar data but are a little hazy about where it comes from and what it really means.

The Energy
Both radar and sonar are active systems; they provide a source of energy (electromagnetic and acoustic, respectively) to "illuminates" the terrain and can therefore operate both day and night. Energy returned from the terrain is detected by the system and recorded as imagery. Radar operates at much higher frequencies than does sonar(Fig. 1) and is used to image and areas above sea level (electromagnetic waves are strongly attenuated in water); the lower frequency sonar signal is transmitted through water and is used to image the seafloor.

At the surface being imaged, energy is scattered when there is a sharp change in the propagation of the wave due to a change in the intrinsic properties of the material through which the wave is Moving (e.g. from air/water to sediment/rock). Energy is generally scattered in all directions, but not uniformly; there is a strong echo in the so-called "specular" direction (as in a smooth mirror reflection). The radar/sonar image is composed only of the "backscattered" energy that returns to the receiving array (antenna). The intensity of the backscatter return (and hence the "brightness" of the image) is a function of both the properties of the system and the characteristics of the terrain. By convention, strong backscatter in radar is shown bright (as is GLORIA sonar), whereas in SeaMARC sonar (and its successor, HMR- 1) strong backscatter is dark.

The Earth
The terrain attributes that affect the intensity of the backscatter return are texture or roughness, and inherent reflectivity of the surface. For radar, inherent reflectivity of the surface is controlled by the dielectric constant (the property that governs electromagnetic wave propagation). Similarly for sonar, the response to wave propagation is governed by the acoustic impedance. Both the dielectric constant and acoustic impedance are functions of the physical properties of the material, including the porosity, pore fluids, grain composition, and structure On land, even small amounts of water raise the dielectric constant so that to a first approximation, geologic materials all have about the same reflectivity and surface penetration is low (note that this is not true for desert areas or for planetary bodies such as the Moon that are completely dry). Thus, on earth, the most important terrain characteristic controlling radar/sonar signatures is usually surface roughness.

The Systems
Because backscatter is most strongly influenced by objects comparable in size to 1/2 the source wavelength or larger, the Figure 1. The electromagnetic spectrum, showing wavelengths for common radar bands and sonar. effect of surface roughness on the radad/sonar image is strongly dependent on wavelength. Radar waves travel through air at the speed of light (3.0x108 m/s) and sonar waves travel through water at the speed of sound (1.5x103 m/s). Because of the relationship between velocity, frequency, and wavelength, the higher frequency radar and lower frequency sonar waves have similar wavelengths (Fig. 1). The surficial characteristics that they respond to are therefore in the same general range of 1 to 100 cm.

In addition to wavelength, two other system properties that affect the backscatter response to surface roughness are angle of incidence (measured from the vertical) and polarization. A rough surface produces strong, nearly uniform, backscatter, regardless of incidence angle. In contrast, backscatter returns from smooth surfaces are very angle-dependent; smooth surfaces tend to have very strong backscatter returns at low incidence angles (near vertical), but little or no return at higher angles (Fig. 2). Shorter wavelengths will show less sensitivity to angle than will longer wavelengths because the same surface looks smoother to the longer wavelength system. For radar images, polarization will also affect backscatter intensity (note that sonar uses acoustic compressional waves, which have no polarization attribute; water cannot transmit shear waves).

Side-looking Radar/Sonar
The simplest form of both radar and sonar sends out a single narrow beam and records the signal strength and travel time (which gives the distance to the target area). More sophisticated radar and sonar systems for large scale (swath) mapping project a narrow fan - shaped beam thereby illuminating a swath parallel t4 and off to the side of, the instrument. This is called side-looking radar (SLR) or side-scan sonar (such as SeaMARC II, or HMR-1). The map is produced as the instrument travels along a line of flight (or shiptrack), sweeping its illuminated swath along the surface beneath it.

Synthetic Aperture Radar
See (Fig. 3)

Resolution in side-looking radad/sonar systems is limited by practical restrictions on the length of antennas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes this limitation by creating a synthetic "antenna" of (potentially) unlimited length, thereby narrowing the beamwidth and increasing resolution. SAR is the most commonly used system in radar imagery, but requires an extremely stable platform (in fact resolution is primarily limited by our ability to correct for motion of the instrument.) There are sonar equivalents to synthetic aperture radar in the early stages of development. The problem is that the tracking stability required by synthetic aperture imaging systems is difficult to achieve in the ocean, particularly for the much longer time intervals necessary to record the return signal.

For most volcanic areas on earth, surface roughness is the predominant geologic factor influencing brightness of the backscatter image; the source wavelength and angle of incidence control the resulting radad/sonar signature. The biggest difference between the two systems is the 2x105 difference in velocity and thus time necessary to receive the returning energy. Both are useful for studying/differentiating surfaces that are rough on the 1 to 200 cm scale.

Mary MacKay and Stan Zisk

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Cone angle
The IMF cone angle acos(Bx/|B|) is the angle between the IMF direction and the sun-Earth line. Statistically typical IMF orientation is 45 degrees in ecliptic (tailward and duskward). It has been shown that the cone angle controls the formation of some Pc 3 pulsations types.

Dispersion relation
Relates the wave number k to the wave frequency. Contains all the information about the propagation of a given plasma wave mode.

Fukushima-Bostrom theorem
Of any ionospheric current system I, only the source-free part Isf can be detected below the ionosphere.

From the equation of motion, m dv/dt = q(v x B) one can calculate that, in a presence of magnetic field B, a charged particle is accelerated in direction perpendicular to both v(perp) and B. This forms a circular motion about a imaginative guiding center of the particle. The sense of rotation is opposite for positive and negative charges, being clockwise for negative particles when viewed in the direction of B. The electrons producing auroras are thus rotating counterclockwise when viewed from the ground in the norther hemisphere. They are also in helicoidal trajectories because of a additional velocity component parallel to B.

Angular frequency of gyration, cyclotron frequency, or Larmor frequency. The magnitude of the angular velocity of a charged particle gyrating around its guiding center, w = |q|B/m (in radians/s). The smaller the particle mass, the larger its gyrofrequency will be, and the higher the magnetic field, the higher the gyrofrequency, also. See also gyroradius.

Radius of gyration, or cyclotron radius. The radius of the circular orbit of a charged particle gyrating around its guiding center, r = v(perp)/w = mv(perp) /(|q|B). The smaller the particle mass, the smaller its gyroradius will be, and the higher the magnetic field, the smaller the gyroradius, also. See also gyrofrequency (w).

Boundary where the outgoing solar wind meets the incoming plasma of the local interstellar medium (LISM). Believed to be at least 120 astromnomical units away.
Langevin equation
Equation of motion for a weakly ionized cold plasma.

Linear perturbation theory
Assumption that the variations in the plasma parameters, due to the presence of waves, are small (to the first order) as compared to the undisturbed parameters. This makes it possible to linearize equations by dropping out second order (and higher) nonlinear terms.

Lorenz gas
The type of plasma in which only the electron motion is important. A valid approximation with high frequency phenomena, when the much heavier ions don't have time to respond. Used succesfully when studying the propagation of electromagnetic waves in cold magnetoplasmas.

Magnetic moment
To the circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic B field there is associated a circular electric current I which, in turn, has an associated magnetic field. This field is parallel to the external field outside the gyroradius of the particle, and opposite inside. The magnetic moment of the particle points thus in opposite direction to B, and has magnitude |m| = IA, if the particle orbit covers an area A. It can be shown that |m| = W(perp)/B, where W(perp) is the part of the particle kinetic energy associated with the transverse velocity V(perp).

Magnetic rigidity
The magnitude of B times the gyroradius of a charged particle equals to its momentum per unit charge, called also magnetic rigidity; Br = mv(perp)/|q|.

Magnetoionic theory
Theory of wave propagation in a cold homogenous, magnetized electron gas.

Pitch angle
The angle a between magnetic field B and velocity vector of a charged particle, v., i.e., sina = v(perp) / v(total), where v(perp) refers to the velocity component perpendicular to B.

Pitch Angle Distribution (PAD)
A form of presenting particle fluxes at a given energy as a function of pitch angle.

Plasma frequency
Space charge oscillations at the natural frequency of the plasma. For the electrons also known as Langmuir oscillations. In cold plasma approximation, and when ion motion is neglected, these oscillations are stationary (no wave propagation), longitudinal (electron velocity is in the same direction as the electric field), and electrostatic (there is no magnetic field associated with the oscillations). In the warm plasma model, these oscillations become propagating disturbances known as space charge waves or Langmuir waves. Since plasma frequencies are proportional to the square root of the density of the particles, one can estimate densities by measuring them.

Plasma instability
Waves in some mode growing exponentially or faster.

Wave packet
Superposition of waves with different values of k and f.

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arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

American Samoa:
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Antigua and Barbuda:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Arctic Ocean:
polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Ashmore and Cartier Islands:

Atlantic Ocean:
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November

generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

dry, semiarid steppe

Bahamas, The:
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Baker Island:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Bassas da India:

cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Bosnia and Herzegovina:
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Bouvet Island:

mostly tropical, but temperate in south

British Indian Ocean Territory:
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

British Virgin Islands:
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

tropical; hot, humid, rainy

temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Burkina Faso:
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Cape Verde:
temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Cayman Islands:
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Central African Republic:
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

tropical in south, desert in north

temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Christmas Island:
tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Clipperton Island:
tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

Cocos (Keeling) Islands:
pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the:
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Congo, Republic of the:
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

Cook Islands:
tropical; moderated by trade winds

Coral Sea Islands:

Costa Rica:
tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Cote d'Ivoire:
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, winters

Czech Republic:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

desert; torrid, dry

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Dominican Republic:
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

El Salvador:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Equatorial Guinea:
tropical; always hot, humid

hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert

maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Europa Island:

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Faroe Islands:
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

French Guiana:
tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

French Polynesia:
tropical, but moderate

French Southern and Antarctic Lands:

tropical; always hot, humid

Gambia, The:
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

Gaza Strip:
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Glorioso Islands:

temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity

tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Heard Island and McDonald Islands:

Holy See (Vatican City):
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Hong Kong:
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Howland Island:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Indian Ocean:
northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Jan Mayen:
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Jarvis Island:
tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Johnston Atoll:
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Juan de Nova Island:

continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Kingman Reef:
tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Korea, North:
temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Korea, South:
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)

maritime; wet, moderate winters

Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:
warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Man, Isle of:
cool summers and mild winters; temperate; overcast about one-third of the time

Marshall Islands:
wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

varies from tropical to desert

Micronesia, Federated States of:
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

Midway Islands:
subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

moderate winters, warm summers

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

tropical to subtropical

desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Navassa Island:
marine, tropical

varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Netherlands Antilles:
tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

New Caledonia:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

New Zealand:
temperate with sharp regional contrasts

tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Norfolk Island:
subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Northern Mariana Islands:
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Pacific Ocean:
planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December

mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

wet season May to November; hot and humid

Palmyra Atoll:
equatorial, hot, and very rainy

tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Papua New Guinea:
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Paracel Islands:

subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Pitcairn Islands:
tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Puerto Rico:
tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Saint Helena:
Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

Saint Kitts and Nevis:
tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Saint Lucia:
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Saint Pierre and Miquelon:
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

San Marino:
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Sao Tome and Principe:
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Saudi Arabia:
harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Serbia and Montenegro:
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Sierra Leone:
tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Solomon Islands:
tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

South Africa:
mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:
variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

Southern Ocean:
sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Centigrade to -2 degrees Centigrade; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Centigrade; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter

temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Spratly Islands:

Sri Lanka:
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)

tropical; moderated by trade winds

arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

varies from tropical to near temperate

temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Trinidad and Tobago:
tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Tromelin Island:

temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

subtropical desert

Turks and Caicos Islands:
tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

United Arab Emirates:
desert; cooler in eastern mountains

United Kingdom:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

United States:
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Virgin Islands:
subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

Wake Island:

Wallis and Futuna:
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C

West Bank:
temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Western Sahara:
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew

two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

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posted 08-21-2003 05:40 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
2.2 Force Laws and Maxwell's Equations

Perhaps the most rudimentary scientific observation is that material objects exhibit a natural tendency to move in certain circumstances. For example, objects near the surface of the Earth tend to move in the local "downward" direction, i.e., toward the Earth's center. The Newtonian approach to describing such tendencies was to imagine a "force field" representing a vectorial force per unit charge that is applied to any particle at any given point, and then to postulate that the acceleration vector of each particle equals the applied force divided by the particle's inertial mass. Thus the "charge" of a particle determines how strongly that particle couples with a particular kind of force field, whereas the inertial mass determines how susceptible the particle's velocity is to arbitrary applied forces. In the case of gravity, the coupling charge happens to be the same as the inertial mass, denoted by m, but for electric and magnetic forces the coupling charge q differs from m.

Since the coupling charge and the response coefficient for gravity are identical, it follows that gravity can only operate in a single directional sense, because changing the sign of m for a particle would reverse the sense of both the coupling and the response, leaving the particle's overall behavior unchanged. In other words, if we considered gravitation to apply a repulsive force to a certain particle by setting the particle's coupling charge to -m, we would also set its inertial coefficient to -m, so the particle would still accelerate into the applied force. Of course, the identity of the gravitational coupling and response coefficients not only implies a unique directional sense, it implies a unique quantitative response for all material particles, regardless of m. In contrast, the electric and magnetic coupling charge q is separately specifiable from the inertial coefficient m, so by changing the sign of q while leaving m constant we can represent either negative or positive response, and by changing the ratio of q/m we can scale the quantitative response.

According to this classical picture, a small test particle with mass m and electric charge q at a given location in space is subject to a vectorial force F given by

where g is the gravitational field vector, E is the electric field vector, and B is the magnetic field vector at the given location, and v is the velocity vector of the test particle. (See the Appendix to this section for a review of vector products ´ and × as well as the Ń differential operator notation to be used below.) As noted above, the acceleration vector a of the particle is simply F/m, so we have the equation of motion


This indicates that the acceleration of a test particle due to gravity is independent of the particle's properties, whereas the accelerations due to the electric and magnetic fields are both proportional to the particle's charge divided by it's inertial mass. In addition, we note that the effect of the magnetic field is a function of the particle's velocity as well as its position. In order to use equation (1) to compute the motion of a test particle (given its mass, charge, and initial position) we need to know the vectors g,E,B for every point in the region of space.

The gravitational acceleration field g at a point p due to a distant particle of mass m was specified classically by Newton's law


where r is the displacement vector (of magnitude r) from the mass particle to the point p. Noting that r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 and r = ix + jy + kz, it's straightforward to verify that the divergence of the gravitational field g vanishes at any point p away from the mass, i.e., we have


The field due to multiple mass particles is just the sum of the individual fields, so the divergence of g due to any configuration of matter vanishes at every point in empty space. Of course, the field is singular (infinite) at any point containing a finite amount of mass, so we can't express the field due to a mass point precisely at the point. However, if we postulate a continuous distribution of gravitational charge (i.e., mass), with a density rg specified at every point in a region, then it can be shown that the gravitational acceleration field at every point satisfies the equation


Incidentally, if we define the gravitational potential (a scalar field) due to any particle of mass as j = -m / r where r is the distance from the source particle (and noting that the potential due to multiple particles is simply additive), it's easy to show that

so equations (3) and (4) can be expressed equivalently in terms of the potential, in which case they are called Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation, respectively. The equation of motion for a test particle in the absence of any electromagnetic effects is simply a = g, so equation (2) gives the three components

To illustrate the use of these equations of motion, consider a circular path for our test particle, given by

x(t) = r sin(wt)y(t) = r cos(wt)z(t) = 0

In this case we see that r is constant and the second derivatives of x and y are -rw2sin(wt) and -rw2cos(wt) respectively. The equation of motion for z is identically satisfied and the equations for x and y both reduce to r3w2 = m, which is Kepler's third law for circular orbits.

Newton's analysis of gravity into a vectorial force field and a response was spectacularly successful in quantifying the effects of gravity, and by the beginning of the 20th century this approach was able to account for nearly all astronomical phenomena in the solar system within the limits of observational accuracy (the only notable exception being a slightly anomalous precession in the orbit of the planet Mercury, which we'll discuss in Chapter 7). Based on this success, it was natural that the other forces of nature would be formalized in a similar way.

The next two most obvious forces that apply to material bodies are the electric and magnetic forces, represented by the last two terms in equation (1). If we imagine that all of space is filled with a mist of tiny electrical charges qi with velocities vi, then we can define the classical charge density re and current density j as follows

where DV is an incremental volume of space. For the remainder of this chapter we will omit the subscript "e" with the understanding the r signifies the electric charge density. If we let x,y,z denote the position of the incremental quantity of charge, we can write out the individual components of the current density as

Maxwell's equations for the electro-magnetic fields are





where E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field. Equations (5a) and (5b) suggest that the electric and magnetic fields are similar to the gravitational field g, since the divergences at each point equal the respective charge densities, with the difference being that the electric charge density may be positive or negative, and there does not exist (as far as we know) an isolated magnetic charge, i.e., no magnetic monopoles. Equations (5a) and (5b) are both static equations, in the sense that they do not involve the time parameter. By themselves they could be taken to indicate that the electric and magnetic fields are each individually similar to Newton's conception of the gravitational field, i.e., instantaneous "force-at-a-distance". (On this static basis we would presumably never have identified the magnetic field at all, assuming magnetic monopoles don't exist, and that the universe is not subject to any boundary conditions that caused B to be non-zero.)

However, equations (5c) and (5d) reveal a completely different aspect of the E and B fields, namely, that they are dynamically linked together, so the fields are not only functions of each other, but their definitions explicitly involve changes in time. Recall that the Newtonian gravitational field g was defined totally by the instantaneous spatial condition expressed by Ń × g = - r g , so at any given instant the Newtonian gravitational field is totally determined by the spatial distribution of mass in that instant, consistent with the notion that simultaneity is absolute. In contrast, Maxwell's equations indicate that the fields E and B depend not only on the distribution of charge at a given putative "instant", but also on the movement of charge (i.e., the current density) and on the rates of change of the fields themselves at that "instant".

Since these equations contain a mixture of partial derivatives of the fields E and B with respect to the temporal as well as the spatial coordinates, dimensional consistency requires that the effective units of space and time must have a fixed relation to each other, assuming the units of E and B have a fixed relation. Specifically, the ratio of space units to time units must equal the ratio of electrostatic and electromagnetic units (all with respect to any frame of reference in which the above equations are applicable). This is the reason we were able to write the above equations without constant coefficients, because the fixed absolute ratio between the effective units of measure of time and space enables us to specify all the variables x,y,z,t in the same units.

Furthermore, this fixed ratio of space to time units has an extremely important physical significance for electromagnetic fields in empty space, where r and j are both zero. To see this, take the curl of both sides of (5c), which gives

Now, for any arbitrary vector S it's easy to verify the identity

Therefore, we can apply this to the left hand side of the preceding equation, and noting that Ń × E = 0 in empty space, we are left with

Also, recall that the order of partial differentiation with respect to two parameters doesn't matter, so we can re-write the right-hand side of the above expression as

Finally, since (5d) gives Ń ´ B = ¶ E/¶ t in empty space, the above equation becomes


Similarly we can show that


Equations (6a) and (6b) are just the classical wave equation, which implies that electro-magnetic changes propagate through empty space at a speed of 1 when using consistent units of space and time. In terms of conventional units this must equal the ratio of the electrostatic and electromagnetic units, which gives the speed


where m0 and e0 are the permeability and permittivity of the vacuum. To some extent our choice of units is arbitrary, and in fact we conventionally define our units so that the permeability constant has the value

m0 = 4p ´ 10-7 (kilogram× meter) / (ampere2× second2)

Since force has units of kg× m/sec2 and charge has units of amp× sec, these conventions determine our units of force and charge, as well as distance, so we can then (theoretically) use Coulomb's law F = q1q2/(4p e0 r2) to determine the permittivity constant by measuring the static force that exists between known electric charges at a certain distance. The best experimental value is

e0 = 8.854187818 ´ 10-12 (ampere2× second4) / (kilogram× meter3)

Substituting these values into equation (7) gives

c = 2.997924579935 ´ 108 meter / second

This constant of proportionality between the units of space and time is based entirely on electrostatic and electromagnetic measurements, and it follows from Maxwell's equations that electromagnetic waves propagate at the speed c in a vacuum. In Chapter 3.4 we review the history of attempts to measure the speed of light (which of course for most of human history was not known to be an electromagnetic phenomenon), but suffice it to say here that the best measured value for the speed of light is 299792457.4 m/sec, which agrees with Maxwell's predicted propagation speed for electromagnetic waves to nine significant digits.

This was Maxwell's greatest triumph, showing that electromagnetic waves propagate at the speed of light, from which we conclude that light itself consists of electromagnetic waves, thereby unifying optics and electromagnetism. However, this magnificent result also presented him, and the other physicists of the late 19th century, with a puzzle that would baffle them for decades. Equation (7) implies that, assuming the permittivity and permeability of the vacuum are the same when evaluated at rest with respect to any inertial frame of reference, in accord with the classical principle of relativity, and assuming Maxwell's equations are strictly valid in all inertial frames of reference, then it follows that the speed of light must be independent of the frame of reference. This agreed with the Galilean principle of relativity, but it flatly violates the Galilean transformation rules, because it does not yield simply additive composition of speeds.

This was the conflict that vexed the young Einstein (age 16) when he was attending "prep school" in Aarau, Switzerland in 1895, preparing to re-take the entrance examination at the Zurich Polytechnic. Although he was deficient in the cultural subjects, he already knew enough mathematics and physics to realize that Maxwell's equations don't support the existence of a free wave at any speed other than c, which should be a fixed constant of nature according to the classical principle of relativity. But to admit an invariant speed seemed impossible to reconcile with the classical transformation rules.

Writing out equations (5d) and (5a) explicitly, we have four partial differential equations

The above equations strongly suggest that the three components of the current density j and the charge density r ought to be combined into a single four-vector, such that each component is the incremental charge per volume multiplied by the respective component of the four-velocity of the charge, as shown below

where the parameter t is the proper time of the charge's rest frame. If the charge is stationary with respect to these x,y,z,t coordinates, then obviously the current density components vanish, and jt is simply our original charge density r. On the other hand, if the charge is moving with respect to the x,y,z,t coordinates, we acquire a non-vanishing current density, and we find that the charge density is modified by the ratio dt/dt. However, it's worth noting that the incremental volume elements with respect to a moving frame of reference are also modified by the same Lorentz transformation, which ensures that the electrical charge on a physical object is invariant for all frames of reference.

We can also see from the four differential equations above that if the arguments of the partial derivatives on the left-hand side are arranged according to their denominators, they constitute a perfect anti-symmetric matrix

If we let x1,x2,x3,x4 denote the coordinates x,y,z,t respectively, then equations (5a) and (5d) can be combined and expressed in the form


In exactly the same way we can combine equations (5b) and (5c) and express them in the form


where the matrix Q is an anti-symmetric matrix defined by

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posted 08-21-2003 10:40 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Asked him a question concerning the spikes in the HAARP magnetometer on Aug 14, and the fact that they were coordinated with the time of blackout (4 PM EST).

So far, no answer...................................................

HAARP had nothing to do with the blackout back east. As a matter of fact you should be more concerned with what HAARP is doing now by altering the jet stream for purposes of over the horizon communications. The magnetometer readings you speak of if they were public would record fluctuations in the magnetosphere because of the permutations that are being created by the heating and cooling of the upper layers, which is causing a slight shift in the geomagnetic field alignment.
When you inject joules of energy into the biosphere it reacts by attempting to compensate for the variation in electron flow, i.e. Compton effect, and reattaches and reforms new structures of energy particles. These particles are then absorbed into the hierarchy of elements that make up the various layers and the results are mutated particles of matter, which in turn disrupts the eco-systematic structure that controls the dynamics of the earth’s bio-engine.
To get better results and more control over the geomagnetic field the antenna array must be modified to a Isotropic antenna array and the power output can be reduced to less than 600 Kilowatts, that is because the magnetic field of the earth will be used as an additional amplifier to boost the signal output. What you get is the use of the earth’s natural waveguide properties to respond as a transponder but globally, thus allowing HAARP to control all communication on band specific frequencies and to alter the atmosphere to control weather patterns selectively and remotely to isolate an area at will to control its environment.
Now we will start!

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