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  New HAARP whistle blower (Page 7)

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Topic:   New HAARP whistle blower

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-31-2003 11:02 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
At present entrainment of weather modification into human activity as well as its significance is growing rapidly.


Means of weather modification serve the purposes of reducing hailstone formation, initiation and redistribution of precipitation, diminishing the fury of thunderstorms, fighting wood fire by artificial or enhanced rainfall, meteo- protection of various sites and events etc.


For the time being these aims are achieved mostly by introducing into clouds substances, such as (a) glaciogenic agents, e.g. AgI (b) cold reagents, e.g. liquid nitrogen or dry ice (c) hygroscopic agents, e.g. NaCl. These seeding materials share a common disadvantage - temperature range of application: AgI - t


Warm clouds can be affected by aerosols of hygroscopic agents (NaCl). Introducing this seeding material is possible (and even more effective) right inside of the cloud as well as into the cloud top.Once inside the cloud the chemical substance mixes with cloud moisture and becomes a solution. The difference in vapour pressure over a drop of solution and a water drop causes the deposition of vapour from the latter to the former. This process takes a long time. At some point the solution becomes practically diluted, that is basically clear water drops. Further growth of drops results then from the process of gravitational coalescence.

To reduce the disadvantages of the described seeding methods Scientific Research Institute of DAP has developed pyrotechnical compositions which, when burning, produce the so called ionogenic hygroscopic aerosol. When such aerosol is introduced into the cloud, small cloud droplets become charged with opposite poles due to the presence of the ions. In case of cloud droplets being very small in size electrostatic forces accelerate their growth. Further growth results from deposition of vapour from water drops to drops of the solution and is enhanced by electric coalescence. Another factor contributing to formation of the solution drops is chemical reaction between the products of burning and the cloud water vapour, which is accompanied by the release of a significant amount of heat.

Thus all along the flare flight trajectory a "thermic" is created leading to formation of a small artificial convective draft. Further on this aerosol acts as a regular hygroscopic one.It is worth noting that thus the process of droplet growth until they reach the size that enables them to fall as precipitation (=100mm) proceeds much faster than in case of clear hygroscopic aerosol.

Exploratory studies and research that led to development of the pyrotechnic compositions producing ionic hygroscopic aerosols began in 1987-88. They achieved documentation on electric conductivity on different height from the butt of the burning surface of pyrotechnical element for various correlations in the system fuel - oxidizer. One of the aims reached was to study the influence of a number of technological additives, organic and non-organic, particularly their role for linear and mass burning velocities.

Experiments have been conducted with the purpose of dispersing an artificially created fog in an aerosol cabin. It has been proven that the developed pyrotechnical compositions enable to exercise active effect on warm as well as supercooled clouds.

Weather modification experiments were carried out in summer of 1991 in Novosibirsk region for enhancing rainfall over farmland. According to the data of precipitation measurement stations rainfall over the target area was enhanced by 100% compared to monthly rate. At the same time normal or less than regular rainfall was documented over control areas in the same region.In summer of 1999 experimental work for putting out wood fire has been carried out in Leningrad region. In favourable conditions (relative humidity in subcloud layer around 80% and presence of non-raining cumuli) direct hits of fire epicentres and their partial liquidation have been achieved. In August 1999 in Tikhvin region a few cumuli have been artificially collided and merged into one vigorous cumulus cloud, from which shower rains were initiated directly over the fire epicentre.


Starting with 1991 meteoprotection® of a large number of events has been performed, including a successful meteoprotection of "Goodwill Games - 1994 " held in Saint Petersburg. In summary: Methods, means and chemical compositions have been developed for exercising active effect on hydrometeorological processes, including different types of clouds in a wide temperature range. Extensive experience of different weather modification operations has been collected, including meteoprotection®, rainfall enhancement, cloud merging etc.


At the moment theoretical groundwork is being created for exercising active effect on tropical cyclones, among which taifuns and hurricanes.


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gaiacomm
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Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-31-2003 11:03 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Chemtrail crisis: an overview and update

by Amy Worthington

It is no secret that America's military-industrial megalith is secretly altering the earth's atmosphere in frightening ways. Huge numbers of aircraft are now kept aloft to create "clouds" with ultra-tiny, ionized metallic particles. HAARP-generated microwave pulses are continually used to heat and agitate the ionosphere.

Synthetically manufactured chem-clouds desiccate the air and very effectively block the sun. The principles of this grotesque aerosol project are spelled out in a number of U.S patents. In 1974, persons associated with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained patent US3813875 for using barium to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere. In 1991, Hughes Aircraft Company obtained patent US5003186, a method for seeding the greenhouse gas layer with tiny particles which include "oxides of metal , e.g., aluminum oxide." The patent states that one proposed solution to global warming was "to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude....."

The 1996 Air Force document titled, Weather as a Force Multiplier, declares, "In the United States, weather-modification will likely become a part of national security policy with both domestic and international applications. Our government will pursue such a policy...."

By 1998, this policy became rudely conspicuous. Blue skies have become a rarity. Demoralized citizens have become increasingly ill and angered, not only by the aerosol project itself, but by the arrogance of those who do whatever they please, the consequences be damned.

Intrepid chemtrail investigator Clifford Carnicom, despite having his life threatened and his phone continually tapped, has compiled data showing the atmosphere to be radically altered toward the alkaline. This indicates the abnormal presence of barium salts. Using spectroscopy and pH tests to prove his hypothesis, Carnicom warned that his findings have "major implications for both the chemistry and biology of the nation and the globe."

Carnicom also shrewdly discovered that, in 1997, U.S. officials altered national visibility standards, indicating anticipation of an aircraft aerosol operation to be conducted over large geographic regions. The old visibility standard of 40 miles has been reduced to 10 miles. And climatic archive data shows that visibility BELOW 10 miles is now a regular occurrence, in major contrast to the norm only four years ago.

In January CBS News reported on bizarre geo-engineering experiments proposed for global warming reduction. The report confirmed that one of the methods advocated by physicist Edward Teller is to fill the atmosphere with metallic particles to "scatter away 1 or 2 percent of the sunlight...the sooner the better."

Last December, a Canadian citizen complaining to his local air authority about sky-muck over Victoria, British Columbia, was told by that authority that the chemtrail formations were the result of a joint U.S. and Canadian military exercise. His explanation was caught on audio tape and played for radio listeners all over the Western Hemisphere. (We have not yet heard whether this uniquely candid official has been boiled in oil). Also recently, an FAA official confirmed in a taped interview with freelance radio reporter S.T. Brendt that he was told on four occasions in March to re-route commercial air traffic to accommodate a huge military aerial operation over the northeastern seaboard.

Radio talk show host Whitley Strieber recently carried on his website an unconfirmed report that a group of former military officers used a private jet to obtain a sample of aerosol material being emitted by a military cargo aircraft. Laboratory tests on that sample reportedly confirmed that the effluent contained both aluminum and barium.

Unfortunately, aluminum and barium are toxic to humans. Hapless populations sprayed continually with these substances are bound to exhibit symptoms of neurological damage and chronic illness. The toxic effects of barium are confirmed by a 1992 Department of Health and Human Services publication. It states that barium can cause breathing difficulties, increased blood pressure, changes in heart rhythm, stomach irritation, muscles weakness, swelling of the brain, as well as damage to the liver, kidney, heart and spleen. Barium was reportedly used by the U.S. as a weapon in the Gulf War to make the enemy weak and ill.

Aluminum is toxic to the nervous system and deleterious to the brain. Its effects on human health were recently illustrated when Canadians in Espanola, Ontario, reported mass illness after low-flying U.S. jets staffed their town with condensation trails containing aluminum coated fibers (chaff). Investigators found area rainwater contained seven times the allowable limit for aluminum exposure, as people complained of neck pain, breathing problems, headaches, burning eyes and dry coughs.

While the military "bombs" populated areas with microscopic pollution particles, the Environmental Protection Agency warns of health dangers from breathing such particles. Just last year, the EPA cited major studies which found that even moderate air pollution can trigger sudden death by changing heart rhythm in people with existing cardiac problems. "For air pollution to have such a substantial impact on public health and have it show up consistently is remarkable," said an EPA official quoted by the Los Angeles Times. While EPA wags its finger at industrial pollution, it consistently denies any knowledge of chemtrail pollution, despite the agency's furtive monitoring of chemtrail web sites where photographic reports of such pollution is constantly updated.

For over two years Congress has been deluged with public complaints about chemtrails and the illness that invariably accompanies heavy spray campaigns. Thus far, congressional reps answer angry inquiries with canned recitations that chemtrails are nothing but contrails that form when hot jet exhaust mixes with atmospheric air of low vapor pressure and temperature. These Con-cowards also invariably report that NOAA, the Air Force and the Department of Health and Human Services deny knowledge and responsibility for unusual aerosol activity. Such official prevarication only adds to public frustration and mistrust. And it certainly confirms widespread suspicion that government officials are lying whenever they move their mouths.

All of this is the "good" news. Next month, we will examine evidence of an even more sinister component of the international aerosol campaign -- that of non-consensual and very dangerous BIOLOGICAL testing now being conducted on the public at large. Meantime, stay tuned to: www.carnicom.com; www.rense.com; www.chemtrailcentral.com.

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 08-31-2003 11:09 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

Radtec Engineering, Inc. is a Colorado Corporation formed in December 1993. The two principals are Dr. Larry G. Davis, President and Mr. Dennis S. Treddenick, Vice President of Engineering. In its Broomfield, Colorado location, Radtec currently has a staff of 17 employees in 10,000 ft² of office and manufacturing space, located in three buildings. An additional 3500 ft² of warehouse space stores the extensive radar parts inventory. At the Transmitter Division in San Marcos, California, Radtec has a staff of 7 employees in a facility of 5,000 ft².

Over the past six years Radtec has experienced a strong growth in sales and we now have over 60 weather radars that are in active service through the United States and Canada. Radtec has also established a strong position in customer satisfaction through its commitment to fast customer response and solid maintenance practices.

Dr. Davis and Mr. Treddenick have a combined total of over 50 years experience with ground based and airborne weather radar systems. That experience includes development, manufacturing and operation of sophisticated weather radars for a wide range of applications, including broadcast TV, hydrology, wind shear detection, military, weather modification, research and national weather service type applications.

The radars described here are C-band units for sale and operation in the world market as well as being FCC type accepted for sale and operation in the US. Radtec also makes a comprehensive line of both S-band and X-band weather radars for sale and operation in the world market outside of the US. Please contact Radtec directly for information on the S-band and X-band systems.


November 1998

Radtec installed a Doppler Weather Radar on the NOAA research ship, the R.H. Brown. The radar control system including software for stabilizing the antenna to "earth reference" has allowed data to be collected through stormy situations while the ship was being displaced by wave motion. The "Brown" returned to the U.S. coast at the end of October, after a very successful ten month, around the world, data collection cruise.
Radtec continues to produce radar products that are on the leading edge of the current operational technology. The REI - 99DC is our new fully digital receiver. This new receiver will now be available in select weather radar systems.

The REI-P-MP radar is our new polarized diversity multi-parameter radar. This radar utilizes both Doppler and dual polarization to produce six parameters that yield information concerning the type of particles in given radar detected volume (insects, droplets, rain, snow, hail, etc). Experience has shown that displays of the individual parameters, other than reflectivity, are hard to interpret. However, when this set of parameters are combined into a proprietary neural network (NNET) the integrated output display clearly distinguishes the boundaries of the various types of particles in a given storm. This system is currently available outside the US only.

Winter 1999 - 2000

With the growth of the company and advancing radar technology, Radtec acquired the JayCor power systems operations in San Marcos, CA, and the weather radar technology and product line from DTN-Kavouras, Inc.
The JayCor operation has become Radtec's Transmitter Division. The Transmitter Division began in 1959 with the development of the first "SCR Magnetic Modulator" for a military radar program. Since then, the division has had a wide range of experience producing radar transmitters, and high voltage, high energy power supplies for military, commercial and OEM applications. Please contact Radtec directly for information on special purpose transmitters and power supplies.
The DTN-Kavouras product line provides the most advanced line of fully coherent weather radar systems that are commercially available today. That technology forms the core of Radtec's TDR series product line. Radar systems using the Kavouras technology have been installed and operating worldwide since the mid-1990's.

Summer 2001

Radtec introduces the RDR-250 product line. The RDR-250 series includes a broad range of the most advanced coaxial magnetron radars available today. From the RDR 250 entry level Doppler radar, to the RDR-250GC with a digital receiver, offset feed antenna and the future option for dual polarity operation, there is an RDR model which can satisfy virtually every weather radar requirement and investment level.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

|Radtec Main Page| |TDR| |RDR| |High Power Transmitter| |About Radtec| |Related Products|


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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-01-2003 11:17 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
How many of you really understand HAARP? And how many really want answers?
Are you tired of being lied to? Have you noticed that the air and water is really posion? Your bodies are being infected by so many manmade products that you are just over burden with fear and mis trust.
Ask yourself, do you wish to be helped? If so then start providing info in your area that can be used to throw back at the rest. Photos of planes or inside buildings, clear images not fuzzy, Audio with clear evidence. Start using tactics to go stealth into the corporations and gather data...papers, memos, emails..

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halva
Senior Member

Greece
475 posts, Dec 2002

posted 09-02-2003 12:00 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for halva   Email halva   Visit halva's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Gaiacomm, I think anyone who has got as far as participating in this forum would already be doing whatever they can, and don't need to be exhorted from on high.

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-02-2003 08:40 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
That could be possible! There is a concern from a few that the more respectfull sources become aware the more risk of exposure of this problem will be brought out into more eyes!
It takes just a little to poke around in the right places. What this board needs is a little push into the light!

[Edited 1 times, lastly by gaiacomm on 09-02-2003]

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-02-2003 05:28 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
What is required are hard facts! This can be presented to a forum of people that can make things happen!

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-02-2003 09:51 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
SENATOR LUGAR REPLIES
The following reply to the protest letter available on www.carnicom.com
has been recently been received by a citizen.
This letter posted with permission on July 10 2000.
The letter is also available from the source at : http://www.terrehauteweb.com/lugarsletter.html

Dear Mr. ######,

Thank you for writing to me to express your concern about airborne condensation trails
(contrails) and reports of possible chemical spraying that create lines in the sky. I appreciate
knowing your concern on this issue.

I have contacted the relevant government agencies, including the Department of Defense
(DOD), the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), the Enviromental Protection
Agency (EPA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with your concerns. Each of the agencies verified
that contrails occur quite naturally in the wake of aircraft, as they have done since World War
II when aircraft began to fly at higher altitudes.

I also asked my Legislative Assistant for Military and Veterans Affairs to research this issue
further. He is a former naval avaitor with over 2000 hours of flight time and has significant
training in meteorology and physics.

The trails seen behind aircraft are formed by condensation. This is caused by the same
physical principles that cause us to see our breath or car exhaust on a cold day. As a aircraft
climbs, it will encounter temperatures approximately five degrees colder every one thousand
feet (this is called the lapse rate). Most aircraft operate at altitudes above 30,000
(approximately six miles), where temperatures are well below the freezing level even on the
most seasonal of days.

For engine exhaust contrails to form, it is necesary for the aircraft to fly through very cold
air, usually about minus forty degrees farenheit. The exhausted moisture and heat saturate the
air and condensation takes place almost immediately. The length of time for which a contrail will
be visible depends upon the relative humidity of the surrounding air. If low, the contrail may not
form or will disappear very quicky. In humid air, contrails can persist for many hours and have
been known to trigger the formation of a thin overcast of cirrus clouds.

As many have pointed out, another cause of why contrails might appear peculiar in
appearance is the patter in which they appear in the sky. Air traffic flows on "highways in the
sky," referred to as airways. Just like roads on a map, airways intersect at airfields or
navigational checkpoints that are represented on navigational charts and defined by a lattitude
and longitude or by a range and bearing to an airport beacon. Therefore, contrails will often
appear in parallel or criss-crossed.

Finally, reoprts on the Internet and elsewhere claim links to a myriad of illnesses and
injuries; however, no data exists to back up these claims. The FAA, NOAA and the EPA, as
well as professors in universities around the country have examined these claims only to find out
that they were made by disreputable sources, who upon challenge have provided no evidence
or back up data.

I hope this information is of interest to you. Thank you again, for bringing your concerns to
my attention.

Sincerely

Richard G. Lugar
United States Senator
RGL/pgp

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-02-2003 10:13 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Electromagnetic Implications Of Modern Warfare Technology

By Hwaa Irfan
18/04/2002


Confirmed in thousands of scientific studies, the 1990 Environmental Protection Agency study “An Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Electromagnetic Fields (ELF)” showed significant links between exposure to ELF, and cancer in humans. The early draft recommended that ELF and EMF be classified as probable human carcinogens. Unfortunately the final and published draft showed no link between the two. Perhaps this is because of the implications this news would have on new Warfare technology and ionosphere research.

In both cases the main danger lies with the ionosphere, 35 miles above the earth. The gas is so thin that free electrons can exist for short periods before they are captured by nearby ions. The ionosphere provides long-range capabilities for commercial ship-to-shore communications, aircraft links and for military communications and surveillance systems. It is to the ionosphere that Voice of America (VOA) and the BBC reflect signals back to earth, transmitting their programs around the world.

The sun has a major affect on the ionosphere. For days before any solar activated magnetic disturbances, all organic life forms are affected (livingcosmos, p.5). Solar flares and coronal mass ejection can cause a worldwide communication blackout on short-wave bands. Incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atoms. But the sun is not the only thing that can cause disturbances in the ionosphere. It is this discovery that has largely fueled the research on the ionosphere and the quest for warfare technology based there.

Research on the ionosphere began in the 1950’s. To support this research, a five-country consortium operates the European Incoherent Scatter Radar site for ionospheric research in Norway. Other facilities include Moscow, Peru and Tadzhikistan. The U.S. has two ionospheric research sites in Puerto Rico and Alaska. The facility that has raised the greatest concern is the one in Alaska. Chosen for its geomagnetic location, the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program was initiated in the early 1990’s. The capability of HAARP is more advanced than other facilities because of its unusual research tools. It provides electronic beam steering, wide frequency coverage and high effective radiated power. Under the Department of Defense, it is run by the Air Force and Navy Research Laboratories. The instruments employed include high frequency phased array radio transmitters and ionospheric research instruments.

High frequency phased array radio transmitters stimulate well-defined volumes of the ionosphere. Ionosphereic Research Instruments use the ionosphere to measure electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, Doppler velocities, high frequency, HF, electromagnetic low frequency, ELF, very low frequency, VLF receivers, magnetometers and light and optical infrared spectrometers. This transmits a narrow beam of high power radio signals in the 2.8 –10 MHz range. With 30 transmitter shelters including six pairs of transmitters at 10kW each produces 3600kW. The signals spread outwards and upwards and are partially absorbed at an altitude determined by HF. The balance of signals transmitted reflect back towards earth or pass through the ionosophere into space (HAARP #1, p. 1,2). On the HAARP website, the Department of Defense states that the research is to “ensure the development of the knowledge, understanding and capability to meet national defense needs in the Arctic (HAARP #1, p.3).



However, the U.S. military’s white paper “Weather is a Force Multiplier; Owning the Weather in 2025” states, “U.S aerospace forces can ‘own the weather’ by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies towards fighting applications. Such a capability offers the war fighters tools to shape the battle space in ways never before possible. In the U.S., weather modification will likely become a part of national security policy with both domestic and international applications” (Fitrakis, p.1). This contradicts the statement that the HAARP project is purely for educational purposes.

When the Natural Resources Defense Council filed a suit against the Department of Defense last August, it was to aim for a new environmental impact statement (Lazaroff, p.1). Before NRDC, a hearing of the Alaskan States Affairs Committee took place in 1996 in response to Alaskan fears awakened by evidence published in “Angels Don’t Play This HAARP” (Begich, p.3). Documentation stated intentions to disrupt portions of the ionosphere by heating it with powerful pulse radio frequency beams. The radiation that bounces back to the surface of the planet would be in the long-wave ELF range. It would:

a) Communicate with submerged submarines with ELF radiation

b) Penetrate the land to find hidden tunnels or sites of military interest

c) Shield a territory from intercontinental ballistic missiles

d) Fry satellites, discriminate between incoming objects

e) Enhance communications

f) Disrupt communications over an expansive area

g) Change the chemical structure of the upper atmosphere

h) Affect human and ecological health.

The HAARP system has been tested since 1994 (Begich, p.1, 2). At the hearing of the State Affairs Committee, military representative, Dr. Hecshaw, testified the full-scale version has 3,600 kilowatts capability as on the website. Dr. Flanagan revealed the inconsistency with the statement given on the T.V program “Sightings.” He quoted, “HAARP can punch holes through the ionosphere and these holes would heal shortly after the HAARP system was turned off.” He continued, saying, “To punch a hole takes more than 3,600 kilowatts plus another disturbing possibility of ‘maser amplification’ of that energy by charged particles in the ionosphere the energy is powered by the sun’s energy – charged particles in the ionosphere can be caused to ‘mase’ so that puts out more energy than HAARP is putting in.”

MASER is an acronym for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Atoms or molecules are raised to a higher energy level and then allowed to lose this energy by radiation emitted at a precise frequency like a laser (Hutchinson, p. 3). Under certain conditions it is thought that the effect can tap into the background energy of space with an unknown affect.

“And when the heaven has its covering removed, and when the hell is kindled up, And when the garden is brought nigh, every soul shall (then) know what it has prepared” (Surat ul Takwir 131:11-14).

HAARP has the potential to trigger floods, droughts, hurricanes and earthquakes. World-renowned scientist Dr. Rosalie Bertell confirmed, “U.S. military scientists…are working on weather systems as potential weapons. The methods include the enhancing of storms and the diverting of vapor rivers in the earth’s atmosphere to produce targeted drought or floods” (Third, p.1).

When the European Parliament heard about HAARP, a public hearing took place in Brussels, in February 1998. The Motion in January 1999 “Considers HAARP…by virtue of its far-reaching impact on the environment to a global concern and calls for its legal, ecological and ethical implications to be examined by an international independent body… [The Committee] regrets the repeated refusal of the United States Administration…and to gives evidence to the public hearing…into the environmental and public risks of the HAARP program.”

Regardless, the program seems to continue and ignore the “Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques.” This agreement, signed by Russia and the U.S., it became effective in 1972, long before HAARP.

In preparing for war, President George W. Bush’s revised version of the National Defense System last May announced a multi-layered shield for the U.S. and its allies (Kettle, p.1). Other methods of war are also being explored. They include the spraying of barium salt, polymer fibers, aluminum oxide as in the crater bombs employed in Afghanistan and other chemicals. Why? The abstract statement on patent 6315213 filed last November states: “The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance, which precipitates to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the cloud’s ability to rain” (Fitrakis, p.1, 2).

Global governancy only considers the right to have not the right to be. One sometimes wonders what possesses us to do the things we do, but in this instance one is horrified at the small-minded schemes, which emphasize how far some people are willing to go regardless of the consequences.

Sources:

Begich, Nick & Manning, Jeanne. “Ground-Based Star Wars.” Earthpulse.com. 10/22/01.

Hutchinson. “Dictionary of Science.” Britain: Helicon Publishing Ltd. 1994.

Lazaroff, Cat. “Star Wars Plan Violates Environmental Laws, Suit Charges.” Environmental News Service. 08/30/01.

Livingcosmos.com. “Natural Phenomenon That Occur in Cycles.” Livingcosmos.com. 10/22/01.

Best, Simon. “Electromagnetic Cover-Up.” The Ecologist. 21:1(1991) 33.

Fitrakis, Bob. “When the Army Owns the Weather” AlterNet.org. 02/09/02.

Healthwellexchange.com. “Electric Magnetic Field Reduce Melatonin.” Healthwellexchange.com.. 10/10/01.

HAARP. ALASKA.edu. #1. “HAARP Fact Sheet” HAARP. 03/10/02.

HAARP.ALASKA.edu. #2. “Why Conduct Ionosphere Research”. HAARP. 03/10/02.

Kettle, Martin. “Bush to Forge Ahead with Star Wars 2.” Guardian Weekly. 164:19(2001) 1

Kettle, Martin. “No Blank Check for Missile Shield.” Guardian Weekly. 165:8(2001) 6.

Third World Network. “Climate Change – An Integral Part of US Star Wars’ Program.” TWNOnline. 10/22/01.

Thompson, Mark. “Star Wars: The Sequel.” Time Magazine. 153:7(1999) 48-49.

Raloff, J. “Magnetic Fields can Diminish Drug Action.” ScienceNews Online. 10/10/01.

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gaiacomm
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Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-02-2003 10:16 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

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When the Army Owns the Weather
Bob Fitrakis, Columbus Alive
February 5, 2002
Viewed on September 2, 2003

Humans have long sought to control the weather. Early people learned how to make fire and modify their micro-environments; rain dances and other rituals to alleviate droughts are part of our folklore. So news that the government is engaged in secret experiments to control the weather should come as no surprise -- especially after a long history of "cloud seeding," "atom splitting" and cloning revelations.


In fact, a vast majority of people would be shocked to learn that this orphan of the cold war is still in practice. As the U.S. and former Soviet Union spent trillions of dollars on their militaries, their commitment to mutually assured destruction led to extensive experimentation with the use of weather as a weapon. In 1977, the Saturday Review cited a CIA report hinting that the U.S. government already had the power to massively manipulate the weather for war purposes.


As the Soviet Union disintegrated, a 1993 Isvestia article suggested the U.S. might want to partner with the Russians in peddling their top-secret technology to the world. Oleg Klugin, a high-ranking KGB officer, bragged of his involvement in geophysical weapons research to a London newspaper. The grid patterns of jet chemtrails now spotted throughout the Western world are likely the application of these technologies to new military and civilian uses.


The military is not attempting to hide its long-term goals. "Weather is a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025" is a white paper that can be found on a Pentagon-sponsored website. The paper’s abstract reads: "In 2025, U.S. aerospace forces can ‘own the weather’ by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies towards fighting applications. Such a capability offers the war fighters tools to shape the battle space in ways never before possible… In the U.S., weather modification will likely become a part of national security policy with both domestic and international applications."


Wired magazine wrote about the paper and extensively quoted physicist Bernard Eastlund in its January 2000 article "Activate Cloud Shield! Zap a Twister!" The article detailed the military’s plan for "made-to-order thunderstorms" and "lightning strikes on demand."


Eastlund managed programs for Controlled Thermal Nuclear Research for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1966 to 1974; he was a key researcher in the 1980s’ Strategic Space Initiative (aka Star Wars). Since 1996, Eastlund served as CEO and president of Eastlund Scientific Enterprises Corporation. The company boasts on its website that it specializes in "weather modification" and "tornado modification" among other high-tech services.


Eastlund considers the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Alaska a smaller version of what he envisions for weather modification. In response to Michael Theroux of Borderland Sciences -- who asked Eastlund whether the HAARP station could affect the weather -- Eastlund replied: "Significant experiments could be performed… The HAARP antenna as is it now configured modulates the auroral electrojet to induce ELF waves and thus could have an effect on the zonal winds."


At the Space 2000 Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations and Business in Space, sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers, Eastlund outlined his plan for zapping tornados with an electromagnetic radiation beam from the proposed Thunderstorm Solar Powered Satellite he’s developing with the help of the European Space Agency and Jenkins Enterprises.


U.S. patent number 6315213, filed on November 13, is described as a method of modifying weather and should concern the public. A scientist from Wright Patterson Air Force Base acknowledges that planes are spraying barium salt, polymer fibers, aluminum oxide and other chemicals in the atmosphere to both modify the weather and for military communications purposes. The patent abstract specifically states: "The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitate to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the cloud’s ability to rain."


Answering the age-old question, Who’ll stop the rain?: Apparently our government and a few of their closest friends in the military industrial-complex. The emergence of Edward Teller promoting this startling technology is more than scary. (Teller was the father of the H-Bomb and grand promoter of Readi Kilowatt, our perky little radiation friend from the ’50s; one of his bright ideas from the ’50s was to create harbors by nuking our own coastline.) The April 24 New York Times reported that Teller "has promoted the idea of manipulating the Earth’s atmosphere to counteract global warming." The computer simulations on the use of aluminum oxide to counter global warming come from the Lawrence Livermore Weapons Laboratory, where Teller serves as director emeritus.


There should be little doubt that this would be a priority for the government -- or for for-profit military contractors. While 2001 was the second-hottest year on record (1998 holds the record as the hottest year), the nine hottest years on record have occurred since 1990. But why would the government conduct anti-global warming experiments in secret?


Investigative reporter William Thomas holds that there’s a link between the recent increase in asthma, allergies and upper respiratory ailments and the chemtrail spraying. Sound crazy? Remember, it sounded absurd when reports first came out that the government had conducted radioactivity experiments on U.S. citizens and released radiation from nuclear plants to test the effect on civilian populations. It sounded bizarre when news first filtered out that the government was engaged in the MK-Ultra mind-control experiments using LSD. The CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency admit they were responsible for many of the UFO sightings in the 1950s in order the explain away experimental military technology.


From public documents to mainstream news accounts, the record is filled with reports of weather-modifying technology left over from the Cold War. Now we have a right to know what, if anything, the government plans to do with it.


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© 2003 Independent Media Institute. All rights reserved.

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gaiacomm
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posted 09-02-2003 10:45 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
http://www-star.stanford.edu/~vlf/

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David
Chemtrail Information Agent


1247 posts, Oct 2000

posted 09-03-2003 09:44 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for David     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Gaiacomm, would you talk a bit more on your statement below, what else would one expect to see happening if HAARP is being tested. What areas of the country would be targeted?
Thank you.
quote:
HAARP will be conducting tests on Sept 3.2003 for 3 days to recheck its power output and antenna array. It also will be injecting protonic ions into the 5th layer. The results will be cloud streams that will carry a high content of moisture and high electron activity that will result in emf bursts that will cause slight interference with rf signals. severe weather over the northeast and eastern coast will also be evident

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gaiacomm
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272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-03-2003 10:46 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
HAARP:

As we know, HAARP has created so much controversy in the media and in our private lives that some of us have created stories and legends about the “devil in the sky”. Our crops have been affected, our air is infected, and our bodies have been infected with radiation created by the HAARP program. Chemtrails have been created by HAARP so they say!

Well now lets answer some questions here! So many of you have read data that has been cut and pasted from the Internet to explain away HAARP and its purpose.
All that is known is what is public and only public. No person other than myself here on this board has ever been to the HAARP location in Alaska and seen the actual facility for all its glory!
Everyone here is very interested in how HAARP really functions or maybe they are worried about Planet X or buy some product that claims to rid oneself of being controlled with a mind control system, so wrap yourself in foil to gain your freedom!
Buy someone’s book on UFO’s to make him or her rich off of your search for knowledge.

This message board is full of valuable information that can be used for purposes other than intended. Some here use this forum as a cyber social place to exchange not so nice comments.
I understand the dilemma that plagues this board with so many people posting so much data and the attempt to sort thru what is truth and what is fantasy.
Every 3 months HAARP does a realignment of its antennas and does a power reconditioning exercise. The results are that depending on the jet streams position at the time of these tests and the fluctuations in the geomagnetic fields determines the position of area that will be affected by this insurgence of joules of power and the modulated frequencies that will be injected into the upper layers. The results are known that severe weather and magnetic storms will prevail over the areas affected. Calculation of the jet stream position on Sept 3, 2003, 0900PST will give you an idea where the end result will take place. Go out 2500 nautical miles, with a spread of 1700 nautical miles, 42 degrees southeast from the location of HAARP in Alaska. If you have a magnetometer you will be able to measure an influx of magnetic fluctuations in those areas on the map.
My purpose is to educate and expose and not debate. I suggest all of you begin a GRASSROOTS project in your home and neighborhoods to slowly form a coalition of activists that truly want answers and results from these manmade atrocities that infects us all daily. The change must occur with each of you first and then let it spread. I am just one person a scientist who tires of the deception and cloaking of information to the public and I alone will stand up and help. If anyone else wishes to help I will welcome you. It is a hard rode to walk when it is paved with lies and deceit. And to uncover it is very difficult but not impossible. Stand up and be counted! Only 1% controls us that leave’s 99% that can fight back! You do the math!

Sincerely,
Dr. Judah Ben-Hur

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gaiacomm
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posted 09-03-2003 06:22 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Wanted: People needed to gather hard evidence to expose chemtrails and haarp!
Only serious minded individuals need apply!

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gaiacomm
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posted 09-03-2003 08:55 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

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Truth Or Error

"Truth, crush to earth, shall rise again,
The eternal years of God are hers,
But Error, wounded, writhes in pain,
And dies among his worshipers."*

* A stanza from the poem "The Battle-Field" by William Cullen Bryan 1794-1878

When two competing theories are presented for the purpose of determining which is true and which is in error; there comes a time when one must stand-alone. That time has come for me in my theory, "The Magnetohydrodynamic Motor Theory", which I have shortened to the geomotor theory. The opposing theory is, "The Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamo Theory", which has also been shortened to the geodynamo theory. One of these theories is in error and the other is the truth.

Now if my theory were anything like the geodynamo theory, then peer review would be appropriate, since there are geophysicists who could evaluate the theory. The geomotor theory involves a completely new dimension and there are no experts in this theory except yours truly. In addition this theory starts with the basic theory in electricity and magnetism and gradually includes thermodynamics, relativity, and concepts foreign to the geodynamo theory. For peer review, this requires that my theory must be reviewed by a group of people who have the same age, education, and social standing as the person whose work is to be reviewed. I cannot and will not be subjected to this type of evaluation by a group of people who know nothing about the geomotor theory. This reminds me of the days in which I taught physics at McNeese State University and was evaluated by freshmen.

Errors in the geodynamo theory will be pointed out. The error appeared when reversal of the earth's magnetic field was first accepted around 1963. At that time it was thought that electrons traveling eastward in the earth could account for the earth's normal magnetic field. It was further thought that electrons only could account for the field whether it was a normal field or a reverse field. No thought of positive charges producing a field was considered. There are approximately as many positive charges in the earth's interior as there are free electrons to produce a magnetic field. For reversal of earth's magnetic field, the flow of electrons must reverse and flow westward which can be shown to be unlikely. Positive charge flowing westward was ruled out because of their size and inability to move through a medium like electrons can. This reversal required a switching action of the flow of electrons from eastward to westward, which is also very unlikely.

The geomotor theory uses the concept of relativity to show that electrons do not flow eastward, but rather the relative motion of electrons and observer as the earth rotates on its axis gives rise to the magnetic field. The definition of relative motion is the difference in speed of electrons as they rotate around the earth relative to the speed of the observer as he rotates around the earth. With this definition of relativity, one can then apply it to positive charges, which are located in the center of the earth, with the result that these two vector fields must add up to produce the magnetic field measured on the surface of the earth. Free charges in motion will produce a magnetic field, whether they are positive or negative. For every electron available to produce a magnetic field, there has to also be a positive charge, or put another way the ratio of negative charges to positive charges in the earth must be approximately equal to one.

Since the positive charges in the earth are further from the observer than the electrons their relativistic effects are greatest which compensates partially for the fact that the observer is closest to the electrons as they rotate around the earth. This would make a reversal more likely. In addition the electrons are repelled from the center of the earth due to the heat of the interior, and are attracted to the center of the earth due to the difference in charge between the positive and negative charges. As the interior of the earth gets hotter this would cause electrons to move closer to the observer who is on the surface of the earth thereby reducing the magnetic field due to electrons and would add to the possibility of a reversal.

The geodynamo theory depends on a switching action to produce a reversal. The geomotor theory depends on a thermostatic action to produce a reversal. In the geomotor theory a reversal from normal to reverse depends on how hot the interior of the earth is, which would cause the electron cloud to be pushed away from the center and nearer the surface of the earth. This would decrease the effectiveness of electrons to produce a magnetic field. As the center of the earth heats up, more electrons become available as well as more positive charges for the interior region, however the extra electrons produced are destined for a region where their effectiveness is reduced due to their position, therefore a reversal becomes more likely.

In the center of the earth, there is the velocity of the positive charges, the perpendicular lines of magnetic force, and a resulting force that is mutually perpendicular to the velocity of charges and to the lines of magnetic force. The equivalent to the parameters used in mass spectrometers. This resulting force on positive charges will cause the solid core to move in such a manner as to increase its rotational energy. This could account for the heating up of the interior of the earth as well as the global warming that we are experiencing at the present time. The result of this force on positive charges would cause the solid core to rotate faster than the mantle and crust. It was determined that the core rotates approximately one extra revolution in 400 years.** How do we know that this electric and magnetic force is the cause of the core rotating faster than the crust and mantle? We do not know for certainty, but we know that a tremendous amount of energy is required and this could be the source of that energy. We also know that global warming is occurring and the cause of this could be due to energy input from this type of source. This type of energy input will continue until the electron cloud is forced outward from the center of the earth causing the normal magnetic field to be replaced with a reversed field.

**Wei-jia et al, 13 December 1996, Science, vol 274, "Planet Within a Planet"

When the normal field is replaced with a reversed field, then the force imposed on positive charges will be reversed, causing a cooling effect to occur because the force will cause the eastward rotation of the solid core to slow down. This could very well cause global cooling to occur which could then lead to another ice age.

In Summary

When both types of charges (positive and negative) are present in a rotating system with positive charges locked into central region and negative charges free to move radially outward depending on the internal temperature of the central region, as present in the earth, then one can expect relativity to act in such a way that the magnetic polarity of the system is dependent on the radial location of the electron cloud. In this way the normal field would depend on temperature of the interior. If the temperature were too hot, the electron cloud would move radially outward reducing the normal field until a reversal occurs, when this occurs, cooling would ensue. The thermostatic action requires that a heating action occurs with a normal field which would cause a reversal that would lead to a cooling action, which would allow the electron cloud to be pulled radially inward due to electrostatic forces on the electron cloud, causing the reversed field to change to a normal field. The evidence that this has occurred in the past is present throughout the Cenozoic Era with the ice ages, then with the occurrence of global warming causing the retreat of these ice sheets.

The above paragraph is the result of 30 years of personal effort without the benefit of grant monies, seven copyright articles dated 1975, 1976, 1995, 1997, 1999, and another in 1999, and still two others pending in 2000. A number of papers were presented to AGU and one to IUGG99 in Birmingham, England. No peer review was involved because that would require me to give up my copyrights. No publications were allowed for the same reason. In spite of that, I still maintain that my theory (The Magnetohydrodynamic Motor Theory), the geomotor theory is correct.

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gaiacomm
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The Gaia Hypothesis
The last half of this century witnessed incredible leaps in our understanding of planet Earth. Beyond the technological achievements, these decades have produced a substantial body of evidence in support of a revolutionary hypothesis, first posed by Alfred Wegener in the early 1900s, that the continents move around the planet, like ice cubes in a glass. The theory of plate tectonics, as it is now known, embodies a century or more of scientific research, bringing together the efforts of oceanographers, geophysicists, climatologists, palenotologists and more. It represents to my mind what the scientific method is all about and provides an awesome example of how science works.

Another example of how science works is a revolutionary hypothesis first proposed by an atmospheric chemist the the late 70s. This hypothesis, known as the Gaia Hypothesis, states that the Earth is alive. While perhaps agreeable to many an artistic or spiritual soul, the very statement of the hypothesis rankled some scientists. Still, two decades later, the Gaia Hypothesis is still with us.

Whether the Gaia Hypothesis will stand the test of time is uncertain. But its impact on how we think of our planet, how we view the processes that create our atmosphere and climate and oceans and even the mountains is unmistakable.

I think you will find it fascinating. Herein is described one of the more controversial scientific hypotheses of our time, the Gaia Hypothesis.

What is Gaia?
The Gaia Hypothesis proposes that our planet functions as a single organism that maintains conditions necessary for its survival. Formulated by James Lovelock in the mid-1960s and published in a book in 1979, this controversial idea has spawned several interesting ideas and many new areas of research. While this hypothesis is by no means substantiated, it provides many useful lessons about the interaction of physical, chemical, geological, and biological processes on Earth. Thus, it is a good starting point for our study of oceanography, providing a broad overview of the kinds of processes that will interest us throughout the semester.

Throughout history, the concept of Mother Earth has been a part of human culture in one form or another. Everybody has heard of Mother Earth, but have you ever stopped to think who (or what) Mother Earth is? Consider these explanations.

The Hopi name for Mother Earth is Tapuat (meaning mother and child), symbolized by a form of concentric circles or squares, as shown below. These forms symbolize the cycle of life, the rebirth of the spirit, its earthly path, and, possibly, its return to the spiritual domain. The lines and passages within the "maze" represent the universal plan of the Creator and the path that man must follow to seek enlightenment.

A more imposing definition of Mother Earth might be found in the Hindu goddess Kali. She is the Cosmic Power, representing all of the good and all of the bad in the Universe, combining the absolute power of destruction with the precious motherly gift of creation. It is said that Kali creates, preserves, destroys. Also known as the Black One, her name means "The Ferry across the Ocean of Existence."

The ancient Greeks called their Earth goddess Ge or Gaia. Gaia embodies the idea of a Mother Earth, the source of the living and non-living entities that make up the Earth. Like Kali, Gaia was gentle, feminine and nurturing, but also ruthlessly cruel to any who crossed her. Note that the prefix "ge" in the words geology and geography is taken from the Greek root for Earth.

James Lovelock has taken the idea of Mother Earth one step further and given it a modern scientific twist. (Are our modern Mother Earth "hypotheses" any more refined than ancient Mother Earth myths?). Lovelock defines Gaia "as a complex entity involving the Earth's biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and soil; the totality constituting a feedback or cybernetic system which seeks an optimal physical and chemical environment for life on this planet." Through Gaia, the Earth sustains a kind of homeostasis, the maintenance of relatively constant conditions.

The truly startling component of the Gaia hypothesis is the idea that the Earth is a single living entity. This idea is certainly not new. James Hutton (1726-1797), the father of geology, once described the Earth as a kind of superorganism. And right before Lovelock, Lewis Thomas, a medical doctor and skilled writer, penned these words in his famous collection of essays, The Lives of a Cell:

Viewed from the distance of the moon, the astonishing thing about the earth, catching the breath, is that it is alive. The photographs show the dry, pounded surface of the moon in the foreground, dry as an old bone. Aloft, floating free beneath the moist, gleaming, membrane of bright blue sky, is the rising earth, the only exuberant thing in this part of the cosmos. If you could look long enough, you would see the swirling of the great drifts of white cloud, covering and uncovering the half-hidden masses of land. If you had been looking for a very long, geologic time, you could have seen the continents themselves in motion, drifting apart on their crustal plates, held afloat by the fire beneath. It has the organized, self-contained look of a live creature, full of information, marvelously skilled in handling the sun.

Thomas goes even one step further when he writes: "I have been trying to think of the earth as a kind of organism, but it is a no go...it is most like a single cell."

Whether the Earth is a cell, an organism, or a superorganism is largely a matter of semantics, and a topic that I will leave to the more philosophically minded. The key point here is the hypothesis that the Earth acts as a single system - it is a coherent, self-regulated, assemblage of physical, chemical, geological, and biological forces that interact to maintain a unified whole balanced between the input of energy from the sun and the thermal sink of energy into space.

In its most basic configuration, the Earth acts to regulate flows of energy and recycling of materials. The input of energy from the sun occurs at a constant rate and for all practical purposes is unlimited. This energy is captured by the Earth as heat or photosynthetic processes, and returned to space as long-wave radiation. On the other hand, the mass of the Earth, its material possessions, are limited (except for the occasional input of mass provided as meteors strike the planet). Thus, while energy flows through the Earth (sun to Earth to space), matter cycles within the Earth.

The idea of the Earth acting as a single system as put forth in the Gaia hypothesis has stimulated a new awareness of the connectedness of all things on our planet and the impact that man has on global processes. No longer can we think of separate components or parts of the Earth as distinct. No longer can we think of man's actions in one part of the planet as independent. Everything that happens on the planet - the deforestation/reforestation of trees, the increase/decrease of emissions of carbon dioxide, the removal or planting of croplands - all have an affect on our planet. The most difficult part of this idea is how to qualify these effects, i.e. to determine whether these effects are positive or negative. If the Earth is indeed self-regulating, then it will adjust to the impacts of man. However, as we will see, these adjustments may act to exclude man, much as the introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere by photosynthetic bacteria acted to exclude anaerobic bacteria. This is the crux of the Gaia hypothesis.

How Does Gaia Work?
James Lovelock, in collaboration with another eminent scientist, the microbiologist Lynn Margulis, first explained the Gaia hypothesis as such: "Life, or the biosphere, regulates or maintains the climate and the atmospheric composition at an optimum for itself." Inherent in this explanation is the idea that biosphere, the atmosphere, the lithosphere and the hydrosphere are in some kind of balance -- that they maintain a homeostatic condition. This homeostasis is much like the internal maintenance of our own bodies; processes within our body insure a constant temperature, blood pH, electrochemical balance, etc. The inner workings of Gaia, therefore, can be viewed as a study of the physiology of the Earth, where the oceans and rivers are the Earth's blood, the atmosphere is the Earth's lungs, the land is the Earth's bones, and the living organisms are the Earth's senses. Lovelock calls this the science of geophysiology - the physiology of the Earth (or any other planet).

Viewed from this angle, there are certain predictions and experiments that can be performed to refute or lend evidence to the Gaia hypothesis. In fact, it was the search for life on Mars that led to Lovelock's early ideas about the existence of Gaia. As part of a NASA team formed in 1965 to look for life on other planets, Lovelock was asked to propose hypotheses that would demonstrate whether life existed on a planet or not. One of these hypotheses was the idea that gases in an atmosphere on a "dead" planet would be in chemical equilibrium, that is, all the possible chemical reactions that could have happened would have happened and the gases of the atmosphere would be relatively inert. On the other hand, if life existed on the planet, gases in the atmosphere would not be in balance, and chemical reactions would be actively occurring.

VENUS EARTH MARS

N (<2%) CO2 (95%)
No oxygen
atmosphere in
chemical equilibrium N (77%), CO2( 0.03%)
21% Oxygen
atmosphere not in
chemical equilibrium N (<3%) CO2 (95%)
No oxygen
atmosphere in
chemical equilibrium

When they looked at the gaseous composition of Mars and Venus, they saw that the atmosphere was largely composed of the generally unreactive gas carbon dioxide. According to their hypothesis, both these planets would be dead. However, when they looked at Earth, they saw that the atmosphere was an unusual and unstable mixture of many gases. Thus, life was expected to be present on Earth (which we all know is true).

While perhaps not so dramatic, this example should give you some idea of how science works and how the Gaia hypothesis came into being (see handout). The fact that the gaseous composition of the Earth was not in chemical equilibrium, yet appeared to be maintained in a constant state, suggested some form of planetary regulation for the planet's atmosphere. Lovelock initially suggested that life itself maintained the composition of the atmosphere, but has broadened the concept to include the whole system of the climate, the rocks, the air, and the oceans as a self-regulating process.

To understand how the Earth might be living, let's take a look at what defines life. Physicists define life as a system of locally reduced entropy (life is the battle against entropy). Molecular biologists view life as replicating strands of DNA that compete for survival and evolve to optimize their survival in changing surroundings. Physiologists might view life as a biochemical system that us able to use energy from external sources to grow and reproduce. According to Lovelock, the geophysiologist sees life as a system open to the flux of matter and energy but that maintains an internal steady-state.

[updated 1999] Modern biology texts often provide the best descriptions of what defines like. Before you proceed, take a few moments to review the characteristics of living matter that I have summarized on a separate page. Read Characteristics of Living Matter here.


Redwood trees from the
National and State Parks
Electronic Visitor's Center

One useful analogy that has been proposed for understanding Gaia is the California redwood tree, Sequoia gigantea. These trees which stand in great groves along the northern coast of California and elsewhere can stand as high as 300 feet and weigh as much as 2000 tons. Some of them are more than 3000 years old.

Redwood trees are like Gaia because 97% of their tissues are dead. The wood of the trunk and the bark of the tree are dead. Only a small rim of cells along the periphery of the trunk is living. The trunk of the tree is similar to the Earth's lithosphere with a thin layer of living organisms spread across its surface. The bark, like the atmosphere, protects the living tissues, and allows for the exchange of biologically important gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen.

There is no doubt in my mind that a redwood tree is a living entity. Would you just call the outer layer the redwood tree and the rest of it dead wood? The same holds true for Gaia. While much of the Earth may be considered "non-living", the fact that all of these non-living parts are involved to some extent in living processes suggests that the whole Earth is alive, just like a redwood tree.

To better understand how the Earth functions physiologically, let's look at one example that has recently been proposed as evidence of Gaia. Let's compare mechanisms of temperature regulation in our bodies and on Earth.

All of us know that our body temperatures are maintained pretty close to 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C). The maintenance of this body temperature is the result of feedbacks between the brain and various organs and systems of the body. Our bodies have developed different responses to increases or decreases in our core temperature. If it is too cold, our bodies produce heat by shivering; if it is too warm, our bodies sweat and remove heat through evaporation. Of course, humans have extended their ability to survive in extremes of temperatures by inventing clothing that insulates, heats, and even cools our bodies. Such clothing has allowed humans to explore the coldest waters of the polar oceans or the hottest regions of the world's deserts.

On Earth, temperature is regulated in a similar, albeit, more complicated fashion. We will examine how the sun warms the Earth in more detail in a later lecture, but for now we can gain some understanding by just considering the effects of the Earth's albedo. Albedo refers to the color of a planet and its ability to absorb or reflect light. Probably most of you have experienced the difference in temperature between a black asphalt street and a white sidewalk; the Earth's temperature regulation works in much the same way. Dark areas, such as mountains in summer, forests, or even the ocean, tend to absorb heat energy from the sun. Light areas, such as deserts, cloudy areas, or the polar ice caps tend to reflect the sun's energy away from the Earth.

As you can imagine, the albedo of the Earth is not constant. What kinds of changes occur over the Earth's surface that would affect the Earth's albedo?

One possible means by which global temperature is regulated is by clouds. If there are more clouds, more sunlight is reflected away from the earth, and the earth cools. If there are less clouds, more sunlight is able to reach the surface of the Earth and the earth warms. What factors control the abundance of clouds?

There are many factors that affect cloud cover over the planet. The interaction of the atmosphere with the ocean is one major factor. Think of how fog forms along the coast during early summer and you'll get the idea. Other factors, such as the rain shadow effect and weather fronts contribute to cloud cover over the planet.

Given that the oceans cover two-thirds of the Earth's surface, it stands to reason that anything that contributes to the formation of clouds over the ocean will have a major impact on the Earth's temperature. One such mechanism proposed in the last couple decades is the release of cloud-condensation nuclei (or CCN's) by marine phytoplankton, particularly coccolithophorids. Coccolithophorids are well-known for their beautiful calcareous skeletons that make up the White Cliffs of Dover in England.

Gephrocapsa sp, one of many species of
coccolithophorids living in the ocean

Clouds form when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses or freezes. However, for clouds to form, a particle or "nucleus" must be present to "gather up" the water into a droplet. These particles, called cloud-condensation nuclei, are the tiny particles in the atmosphere that lead to the formation of clouds. Water vapor condenses around these particles and clouds are formed.

One substance that can act as a CCN is dimethyl sulphide, or DMS. It has been known for quite some time that certain algae or phytoplankton (plant plankton that live in the ocean) release trace quantities of DMS. Production of DMS by phytoplankton may be sufficient to cause the formation of clouds, and recent research has been directed towards quantifying the amounts of DMS released into the atmosphere by organisms living in the sea.

Where this process becomes interesting for Gaia is the possibility that phytoplankton can control the temperature of the Earth by regulating the amount of cloud cover over the oceans. Imagine that! Phytoplankton, tiny single-celled plants in the sea, have their fingers on the Earth's thermostat! When the sun is shining brightly, phytoplankton grow rapidly (they're plants, remember?) and produce DMS, which leads to clouds. After a while, the increase in clouds lowers the temperature of the Earth, but it also blocks the sunlight to the phytoplankton. As a result, the phytoplankton grow more slowly, less clouds are formed, and the temperature of the Earth rises. The cycle continues to repeat in a self-regulating and balanced manner.

While much more research is needed, there is some evidence that phytoplankton could control the formation of clouds and the Earth's temperature to some degree. Regardless of whether this mechanism bears the test of time, it does give us pause to think of how living organisms and the Earth itself may interact with each other. It should make us sit and wonder how such a mechanism evolved. For sure, the idea that the whole Earth - the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere - works together in a harmonious fashion has great intellectual, philosophical, and poetical appeal, if nothing else!

What Does Gaia Predict?
If indeed the Earth is a living organism and the sum of its biological, geological, chemical, and hydrological processes act in concert, what then might we expect of such an organism? How should such an organism act?

We've already mentioned the maintenance of non-equilibrium conditions in the atmosphere as one characteristic of a Gaian planet. We also looked at how organisms such as phytoplankton can transfer chemicals such as DMS into the atmosphere and thus, participate in the cycling of elements within the planet. Organisms are a vital part of all chemical cycles and I would like to introduce to you here the concept of biogeochemical cycles.

By their very nature (and as the name implies) biogeochemical cycles are a mechanism by which the Earth's elements are transformed and carried (in the physical sense) around the Earth. Because the Earth's mass (and material elements) are fixed, the Earth must recycle elements to make them available for other processes. Otherwise, the whole system would run down and the Earth would be just like the moon.

The most common biogeochemical cycles are the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the sulfur cycle. Living organisms are a vital part of these cycles. Tremendous masses of material are consumed, transformed, transported, and recycled by the actions of living organisms. In fact, the deposition of sediments in shallow waters is responsible for the uplifting of coastal shores.

Planetary processes governed by living organisms lend credence to the Gaia hypothesis, but they do not prove her existence. If, after a number of decades, a large body of evidence develops that supports the hypothesis that our planet is a living, self-regulating organism, then the Gaia hypothesis may be upgraded to a theory, much like the theory of gravity. Until then, Gaia is an idea that stimulates our thinking and generates scientific research that helps us better understand our planet and how it works.

As one last look at what Gaia might predict, I would like to offer an idea of my own. One of the biggest criticisms against the idea that Gaia is a "living" organism is the inability of the planet to reproduce. Certainly one of the hallmarks of living organisms is their ability to replicate and pass on their genetic information to succeeding generations. In the case of Gaia, this does not appear to be true, or does it?

I would like to propose that man himself is the means by which Gaia will reproduce. Man's exploration of space, his interest in colonizing other planets, and the large body of sci-fi literature that describes terraforming, lend strong evidence to the idea that Gaia is planning to reproduce. Imagine that man colonizes another planet. Imagine that the planet slowly begins to transform; the atmosphere changes, perhaps leading to the formation of ice caps; plants grow, creating clouds and changing the planet's albedo. No longer will this planet be a static, forbidden place. It will be transformed into a place of beauty -- a living, breathing, evolving entity. This indeed is the power of Gaia, and one of the more fascinating and compelling reasons to consider her existence!

Finally, beyond the scientific importance of what we have discussed here, we might do well to consider some of the more poetical thoughts of the originator of the theory. At the end of Chapter 1 in his first book, Lovelock writes:

"If Gaia exists, the relationship between her and man, a dominant animal species in the complex living system, and the possibly shifting balance of power between them, are questions of obvious importance...The Gaia hypothesis is for those who like to walk or simply stand and stare, to wonder about the Earth and the life it bears, and to speculate about the consequences of our own presence here. It is an alternative to that pessimistic view which sees nature as a primitive force to be subdued and conquered. It is also an alternative to that equally depressing picture of our planet as a demented spaceship, forever traveling, driverless and purposeless, around an inner circle of the sun."

Update Summer 1999
I first heard of the Gaia Hypothesis as a graduate student at the University of Southern California (USC) in the 1980s. Having taken a couple courses in Systems Ecology from Dr. James Kremer, I was more than accepting of the idea that systems have emergent properties that cannot be discerned from their individual components. Within that context, the Gaia Hypothesis made sense to me, perhaps more philosophical scientific, but sense, nonetheless.

Since the time of writing these notes in the summer of 1996 (just before I started teaching at Fullerton College), I have learned a lot more about the Gaia Hypothesis, both from the WWW and from conversations with Tom Morris, who teaches planetary biology at Fullerton College and hosts the Planetary Biology Home Page. It has also become somewhat of a theme of mine throughout all of my oceanography classes, not so much the hypothesis, but the idea that physical, geological, chemical and biological processes are interdependent, something that fits quite well with Gaian Theory.

Here then are a few more things that I have learned in the past three years that may further elucidate and validate this important idea.

The Many Faces of Gaia

One of the more interesting extensions of the Gaia Hypothesis has been its transformation from one hypothesis to multiple hypotheses. This is not uncommon in scientific work and it generally represents a healthy and lively application of the scientific method. This divergence of views arises as a result of the different approaches of individual scientists and their beliefs, in the sense of their view of what a body of evidence supports or doesn't support.

Recognition of the many Gaia hypotheses evolved from a symposium on the Gaia Hypothesis held in 1988. A group of geophysicists and others came together to discuss the hypothesis, an event in itself that helped fuel its acceptance. While there were (and still are) many detractors, Gaia did appear to gain a toehold with general acceptance of the idea that life at least influences planetary processes.

Certainly no one could argue against the evidence that dramatic changes occurred in Earth's early atmosphere as a result of the evolution of photosynthetic organisms approximately 3.5 billion years ago. The resulting oxygen holocaust, which established present-day oxygen concentrations about 2.5 billion years ago, radically changed physical, geological, chemical and biological processes on our planet. Rust is one good example of chemical alterations brought about by oxygen. A good biological example is the appearance of oxygen-breathing organisms, or aerobes, and the confinement (in a figurative sense) of non-oxygen breathing organisms, or anaerobes, to swamps and bogs and places deep in the Earth.

The idea that life influences planetary processes (i.e. has a substantial effect on abiotic processes) has become known as the weak (or influential) Gaia hypothesis. This hypothesis is generally supported by scientists today and, in fact, is probably most responsible for stimulating continued research on Gaia. Even the most conservative scientists agree that research on the way in which living organisms interact with non-living processes may yield useful information. Much of our modern-day climate research is based, to some degree, on this idea.

As a result of defining a weak Gaia hypothesis, the original Gaia hypothesis (i.e. that life controls planetary processes) became known as the strong (or optimizing) Gaia hypothesis. Few scientists are willing to support this hypothesis.

One of the reasons that the Gaia Hypothesis sparked such debate in scientific circles has to do with scientists' ability to test hypotheses. As we learned earlier, the traditional scientific method relies on refuting a hypothesis, proving it wrong, as the means for eliminating possible explanations. This method of falsifying a hypothesis was proposed by the Austrian-born Karl Popper in a 1934 publication called Logik Der Forschung or The Logic of Scientific Discovery. (Popper passed away in 1994 but he is still considered one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th Century. You can learn more about him by visiting the Karl Popper Web, http://www.eeng.dcu.ie/~tkpw/.) The single largest complaint lodged against the strong Gaia hypothesis is that experiments can't be designed to refute it (or test it at all, for that matter.)

Without going into all the details, suffice it to say that those arguments are valid. The strong Gaia hypotheis states that life creates conditions on Earth to suit itself. Life created the planet Earth, not the other way around. As we explore the solar system and galaxies beyond, it may one day be possible to design an experiment to test whether life indeed manipulates planetary processes for its own purposes or whether life is just an evolutionary processes that occurs in response to changes in the non-living world.

Useful Links:
For an excellent account of the scientific evidence and controversies and much greater detail than I have provided here, check out these web sites dedicated to the Gaia Hypothesis.

The Gaia Hypothesis http://magna.com.au/~prfbrown/gaia.html

The Gaia Hypothesis http://www.slip.net/~farb/gaia_page.htm

Additional Reading:
To read more about the Gaia Hypothesis and related topics, check out these publications:

J. E. Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, 1979
James Lovelock, Healing Gaia: Practical Medicine for the Planet, Harmony Books, 1991;
Lewis Thomas, The Lives of a Cell, Bantam Books, 1974.
The Gaia hypothesis: can it be tested? in Reviews of Geophysics 27:2, 223-235, 1989


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MINUTES
OF THE
SPECIAL MEETING OF
LAKEWOOD CITY COUNCIL
HELD IN THE AUDITORIUM
12650 DETROIT AVENUE
AUGUST 23, 2002
6:00 P.M.

Special Meeting of Council called to order at 6:00 P.M. by President Seelie.
….
Present: Councilmembers Denis P. Dunn, Edward FitzGerald, Thomas J. George, Nancy J. Roth, Robert M. Seelie, Michael J. Skindell.
Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. FitzGerald, to excuse the absence of Councilmember George..
Motion adopted. All members present voting yea.
….
Also Present: Mayor Cain, Law Director Spellacy, Police Chief Malley, Health Commissioner Evans, and Human Services Director Carey.

Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. Dunn, to appoint Mary Coleman acting Clerk of Council.

Motion adopted. All members voting yea.

****OLD BUSINESS****

1. Committee of the Whole Oral Report regarding Ordinance No. 134-02 and 135-02

Mr. Seelie reported the following:

Called the meeting to provide clarity to a serious situation. He said this was the third meeting, that there was a public meeting Tuesday, where individuals were able to write down any comments, questions or concerns and those were answered accordingly. There was a public meeting then on Wednesday. The Meeting on Wednesday produced a report, chaired by Councilman FitzGerald, head of Health and Human Services Committee and also Councilman Dunn. That letter will be read into the record and that will be the end of the oral communication. The Committee of the Whole met earlier and voted 5 to 1 to pass Ordinances 134A-02 (Corrected numbering occurred after this meeting) and Ordinance 135-02.

Mr. FitzGerald first indicated that one of the questions that was brought up at the Public Hearing was whether or not there were patients at Lakewood Hospital who were awaiting test results to indicate positive or negative for the West Nile Virus. He said that Dr. Carey and Dr. Kilroy from Lakewood Hospital were present at the Wednesday Public Hearing. Prior to this Meeting Dr. Kilroy was asked that question again and one of the patients that was under observation at Lakewood Hospital and actually was referred to Fairview Hospital has tested positive for the West Nile Virus. He said he was not aware if they were actually a Lakewood resident at that time. There was also a letter signed by Dr. Carabella, from Lakewood Hospital, the CEO of the western region with the Cleveland Clinic and Dr. Chapman was expressing the opinion of Lakewood Hospital that the prevalence of the West Nile Virus infection justifies spraying pesticides.

He said it isn’t normal to be handed this long of a communication just prior to a meeting and he apologized stating the report was just recently finished. He said immediately after the approximately four and half hour public hearing the report was drafted. He reads report:

In past two weeks, Lakewood City Council as well as our community at large has been struggling with our response to the West Nile Virus. Lakewood City Council has held several emergency meetings in recent days in an attempt to fashion a coherent health response. On Wednesday evening, August 21st, the Health and Human Services Committee conducted and informational public meeting on the various preventative strategies and risks associated with West Nile Virus, WNV. For nearly four and one half hours the Committee heard testimony from physicians and medical personnel, Mayor Cain and representatives from the Lakewood’s Division of Health, the Cuyahoga County Board of Health and the Shaker Heights West Nile Virus Task Force. West Nile Virus is a complex public health issue and much is still unknown. Further the public health, safety and welfare of our community is not well served when City Council, under conditions not of its own making, is forced to condense our normal, deliberative process and make recommendations during the panic of a perceived public health emergency. Nevertheless, we believe that the following is a rational, scientifically based West Nile Virus prevention strategy that will reduce the threat of West Nile Virus while also ensuring the long term public health of our community.

The Members of the Health and Human Services Committee agreed on a strategy comprised of nine elements. Some are recommendations to the Administration, which we can only hope that they will take as constructive and seek to speedily implement them. Others are initiatives that this Council can adopt in future legislative sessions. The safest, most effective approach to combating West Nile Virus is a three part, integrated strategy. Number 1, Larvicide, which is the aggressive employment of biological agents to kill mosquito larvae. Two, source reduction, which identifies and eliminates sites where mosquitoes breed such as standing water and bird baths, gutters, etcetera. Three, intensive public education on how to prevent West Nile Virus.

Given the current threat level of West Nile Virus in Lakewood, we strongly recommend that Mayor Cain in her capacity as Director of Public Safety undertake the following course of action immediately. First, it is uncontroverted that larviciding is by far the most effective West Nile Virus Prevention measure. Lakewood’s larviciding protocol, while superior to Cuyahoga County’s, is not sufficient to the task at hand. All City catch basins and sewers should be larvicided without delay. This should be repeated every other week and after every rainfall similar to the successful effort undertaken by the Shaker Heights Health Department. This approach shall not cease until the end of the mosquito season that coincides with the first frost. Second, conduct and intensive source reduction effort throughout Lakewood with every available non-essential service employee as practicable, walking our community in a door to door campaign intent on identifying and eliminating pools of free standing water that breed mosquitoes. This effort must be comprehensive and engage every residential homeowner, commercial property owner and all municipal properties and buildings. Since the current generation of mosquitoes has a life expectancy of ten to fourteen days and will not be effected by the increased larviciding the intensity of the source reduction efforts should last at least two weeks and continue thereafter as necessary. Third, mass public education is a key preventative strategy intent on ensuring that residents are full aware of the potential risks of the West Nile Virus. Residents should be advised to purchase non-toxic mosquito repellants and to take other, reasonable precautions. Public communication should take place via the City’s website, through conversations with City employees via the door-to-door effort, and through a city-wide mailing. Such a mailing, unlike the Administration’s previous letter to residents must identify any pesticides being used and should full disclose any adverse health effects associated with its use. Fourth, the City’s utilization of mosquito prevention measures must be predicated upon the principle of risk management. The panel of experts assembled Wednesday evening were in full agreement as to the preventative measures outlined above. The spraying of pesticides on adult mosquitoes, however, has prompted disagreement among both the panel and the community at large. Although recent data collected by the Cuyahoga County Board of Health is encouraging it cannot be definitively stated how efficacious the spraying of pesticides is in reducing the West Nile Virus positive mosquito population. Correspondingly, it is reasonable to be concerned with possible, long-term public health consequences of pesticide exposure. Further, while it is not a certainty that a more aggressive larviciding policy would have negated the need to spray it is none-the-less true that Shaker Heights which like Lakewood has its own Health Department has employed just such an aggressive larviciding policy and to date is not considering the spraying of pesticides even though they have the option to do so. The ethics of spraying the homes and yards of a significant non-compliant population and chemically sensitive residents, children or asthmatics heightens the duty of the City in considering whether the broadcast use of pesticides is appropriate. The current City policy fails to clearly delineate a standard as to when pesticide spraying might be employed. We recommend that the City adopt a policy of spraying only as a last resort and as part of a policy of risk management which balances the dangers of West Nile Virus with the risks of pesticide exposure and only when there are indicia as determined by medical personnel of possible human West Nile Virus infection in Lakewood or surrounding communities. Even at this stage, the spraying of pesticides is not required and should be undertaken with the greatest caution and to the least extent possible. Targeted ground spraying whenever feasible should be the preferred method if pesticides are ever used. Fifth, City Council should sponsor the creation of an Environmental Protection Board whose mission will be to assess the environmental health of our city and propose standards to improve it. And adjunct to this Board should be a West Nile Virus Task Force which can monitor our efforts to combat this problem and suggest improvements. Sixth, as was demonstrated at the Public Hearing, the approach other government entities adopt regarding West Nile Virus Prevention also effects input (Check on “input”). We strongly urge the Administration to engage the leadership of the Metroparks in particular to ensure that Lakewood residents are protected. Seventh, we urge that the Administration actively explore the use of bio-pesticides with the goal of eventual replacement of pyrethroid-based pesticides. Eighth, City Council should consider re-doing relevant ordinances to determine if additional authority should be given to our Health Department to combat diseases such as West Nile Virus. Specifically, we recommend that Council consider the maintenance of persistent, standing water a cite-able offense during mosquito season. Ninth, the governmental process followed by the Administration in this entire matter was deeply flawed. The failure to request contracting authority for West Nile Virus preventative measures in a timely manner led to public consternation, an attenuated and confusing public debate and a waste of taxpayer dollars. The Administration is urged to examine the root cause of these failures and enact appropriate controls to prevent its repetition. In particular, the decision to send a letter to Lakewood residents stating that the spraying of pesticides would take place and the expenditure of public funds to finance that letter prior to the authorization of funds to do so is a serious error that cannot be allowed to happen again. The resulting false alarm has made the task of preventing the spread of this virus all the more difficult. We believe that these recommendations are firmly based on the principles of sound science and good government. We have a duty to our residents to provide them the safest environment possible and to respond to public health dangers be they natural or synthetic. With the adoption of these recommendations Lakewood’s public health strategy will become a model for other cities to follow and will have fulfilled our missions as public servants. Sincerely, Edward FitzGerald, Chairman and Denis Dunn, member from Health and Human Services Committee.

Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded Mr. Dunn, to receive, file and concur with the oral report and written communication.

Mr. Dunn said he believed the recommended provided was consistent with the Center for Disease Control guidelines. He referred to page 37 of guidelines referencing flexibility was required.

Ms. Roth indicated she favored the Environmental Protection Board for the long-term, and said the option to spray should be allowed because of the number of seniors in the community and because of a case of a person being infected

Mr. Skindell said he would vote against the motion because he disagreed with some of the statements made in the report. He said he was also not comfortable with the recommendations in that he thought they were arrived at in a process that was skewed, lacked public participation and lacked an in-depth review of the topic.

Mr. Corrigan said the statistics Dr. Kilroy presented at the meeting Wednesday night were chilling in comparison to the 1999 New York outbreak of West Nile Virus. He said in considering the objective criteria before them with the high positive counts of mosquitoes the expectation was that there would be more high counts in the future. He said he would be supporting the allocation of funds to combat this. He said the CDC recommended action, that it had been studying, researching the virus for years and that their recommendation should be given credence, serious thought and should be followed.

Comment from public said the report left out the health effects of the pesticides.

Dr. Patrick Carey, resident of Lakewood, spoke about Lakewood Hospital’s position regarding broadcast spraying of pesticides. At the Leadership Council at the Hospital a recommendation was approved - to proceed with broadcast spraying of pesticide due to the presence of human cases of the West Nile Virus case in the Westside community and the threshold that far-exceeded that established by the Center for Disease Control for when spraying should occur. He said there was no mention that pesticides should be phased out or discontinued. He said they are used as common household pesticides and flee bombs, bug sprays of all different sorts. He said the absence of a controlled study that has given pesticides in large doses to pregnant women is a criterion which can never be met, because noone would purposefully administer a potential teratogen to a pregnant woman. We don’t know one way or the other but we do know that the pesticide has been available for over twenty years and there is no evidence to support that it is a teratogen, that it causes central nervous system complications in the unborn or born. He said further that there is no evidence to report that it increases the risk of breast cancer or breast cancer as proposed by phychiatrists form Shaker Heights Wednesday.

Question is – if appropriations approved that evening – if the Mayor had authority to spray that night. Answer was yes- question of if notification would take place for future spraying – answer was yes and how much of an advance notification was asked – answer was provided was as much as possible.

Mr. FitzGerald indicated the Mayor had to be the person to decide whether to spray or not and that she had to decide the method of notification. He said Council could not really say how many days notice.

Mr. Seelie said that we could assure the public that if spraying took place, it would be notified – by mail or any other measure possible.

Amy Ryder from Ohio Citizen Action stated she opposed spraying. She said that she had been fighting pesticides for ten years and was stunned to hear Lakewood Hospital would endorse spraying.

Others spoke in opposition of spraying, asking where evidence showing spraying adult mosquitoes reduced incidence of WNV in people. Chris Trepal from Sierra Club provided two suggestions in addition to the report - referencing the CDC recommends increased surveillance and data collection said she would like to see that increased – by our own Health Department – students. Also- would like City to consider when and if – Mayor sprays – make sure residents have information on pesticide exposure.

Human Services Director Carey, - Dr. Richard Barry from the Ohio Department of Health provided an article regarding a critical review ultraviolet, low volume aresols of insecticides applied with vehicle mounted generations for adult mosquito control.

Dr. Kilroy, resident, - said a timeline of the West Nile Virus infection was not provided in the report. He said that in every epidemic that has occurred since 1999 the peak number of cases was the last week of August, the first week of September. There is a delay between the initial bite and infection of about one week which means the cases that are presented this week, and have gone from two CDC confirmed cases to ten CDC confirmed cases since Wednesday were all people bitten last week which is the week after the initial spraying date. He said the people who are being bitten this week will be the ones presented next week and this is a geometric progression. He said there really was no time to do a lot of theoretical things that may have an effect down the road because right now we’re approaching a outdoor holiday – the Labor Day weekend where a large segment of the population out and being bitten by mistakes. There is a direct relation between number of mosquitoes and bit rates and numbers of infections. At this point in time because this is basically a non-treatable disease, the only thing we can do is decrease the mosquito population in order to decrease the number of patients that are bitten, to decrease the number of viral infections. There is always an interesting thing where the opponents to the aggressive management of mosquito control tend to look at just death rates which is about one in 150 of the 1000 people in Lakewood who will have active vireneas. He said they fail to mention the twenty percent of the 1,000 meaning 200 people in our community who will have an exacerbation of an underlying medical problem and will die from that. For example the gentleman who was just confirmed by the CDC an hour ago - his primary problem isn’t actually the fever, the shakes and the weakness from the WNV it’s the fact that he’s an in state COPD patient with having trouble breathing fast enough to keep up with his fever. He is at risk of death from his COPD exacerbated by that. He said this is not a one in a million thing. He said Dr. Holmes did not do mathematics very well because when she said one in a hundred times one in a hundred is one in a million. It’s actually one in ten thousand. She was predicting deaths so by her numbers she would have predicted five deaths in our community which to me is significant. He said he thought that the physicians leadership group this morning that met about this issue believes that we are behind because we have not suppressed our mosquito population thus far.

He said one of the agents that will be used in pesticides is that they’re under the control of the EPA. He said the best scientific data is there, and we know it’s a small risk. He said that pumping gas at gas station is a small risk. He said that we know what a real risk is and that’s what West Nile can do to this community if we don’t’ protect it. He said if we can prevent one or two deaths from occurring from an uncontrolled epidemic would you take it or should we worry about balancing the budget. He said he didn’t think in that report the urgency of action was brought up. He said there was no time to try new agents. He said the medical staff concluded that they should act to prevent death and disability that they can see in their hands and in our beds and not worry about things that are theoretical – that are basically based on psuedo science.

Mr. FitzGerald said that the report did not – most difficult period of time would be over the next ten to fourteen days. He said if the City adopts a more aggressive larviciding policy it won’t have an effect on the current, ambient adult mosquito population. He said he did not dispute Dr. Kilroy’s point. He said the report does say that we shouldn’t be glib about the release of pesticides. He said that’s what the mayor would have to do.

Dr. Kilroy said that if you go to the Ohio State Action Plan – that 85 page document, it will reference the EPA site that will tell you what the risk is and the risk is miniscule to what the risk of the West Nile Virus is.

A person smoke about all the years of the Chemlawn trucks, and was puzzled why number of people fearing spraying. Several members of the public responded that they had concerns of those too.

Question to Mr. Skindell was what specific parts of the report he disagreed with.

Mr. Skindell responded that he received the report only moments before the Committee of the Whole and said he did not have time to digest the report. He said he was concerned that the ordinances do not in any way set up a protocol for the City to deal with WNV. He said that the protocol we have employed, and I believe we have larvicided much more than other communities, don’t think larviciding has been most effective. He said a week ago today, rain, no efforts were made after larviciding was washed away. He said the report does not go into detail about the spraying, it was broad. He said how the notice and time frame were not provided in the report. He said with he took issue with the reference to the governmental process in the report being characterized as a major flaw. He said that he did not agree that the actions the Mayor took led to “public consternation”. He said he did not agree with everything the Administration has done but thought it was inappropriate for the report.

Question was asked if larvicide, was a pesticide was not considered as dangerous beause because it was not airborn. Increase larviciding after rains, increase education of residents and only as a last resort recommend spraying. Mr. FitzGerald said the questioner was correct.

Mr. Seelie said he would like to take back his motion and would like to make the motion to receive and file the communication. He said he imagined there were some sentences he may not have written or totally agreed with but in principle agreed with the report. He asked if the seconded would take back the sentence and just receive and file the report. Response was “sure”.

Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. Corrigan, to receive and file the report.

Motion adopted. Five members voting yea.
Nay: Mr. Skindell.
….

2. ORDINANCE NO. 134A-02 – An Emergency Ordinance adjusting appropriations for expenditures in the General Fund and the Hospital Fund for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2002 for the purpose of taking measures for West Nile Virus prevention. (FIRST READING & DEFERRED 8/12/02, PLACED ON SECOND READING & REFERRED TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 8/20/02).
Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. Corrigan to adopt Ordinance No. 134-02.

Mr. Skindell said he would be voting against the two ordinance stating that Council should take time to amend the ordinances to include some of the items brought forward by Councilman Dunn. He said he was concerned that the ordinance did not emphasize the larviciding in the City – that could be mandated. A time frame of the notices could be inserted into the ordinances should decision by the Mayor and the Public Health Officials in the community to spray. The manner of the notice and the content could be provided in the ordinances. He said the ordinances failed to do that. He said the whole matter is still unclear as far as the strategy aside from just go and spray.

Mr. Corrigan said that he will be supporting the ordinances because the money is needed here and now to combat this virus – it is needed for larviciding and any other measures deemed necessary to combat this.

On the motion to adopt:
Yeas: Corrigan, Dunn, FitzGerald, George, Roth, Seelie,
Nay: Skindell.
Ordinance No. 134A-02 Adopted.
….

3. ORDINANCE NO. 135-02 – An Emergency Ordinance authorizing the Mayor (Director of Public Safety), the Director of Public Works, the Director of Law, the Director of Finance, and/or the Procurement Officer to enter into contracts for professional services, and to purchase any and all supplies, services and equipment as necessary for the West Nile Virus Prevention Program as authorized by the 2002 Appropriation Ordinances and the Administrative Code of the City of Lakewood. (FIRST READING & DEFERRED 8/12/02, PLACED ON 2ND READING AND REFERRED TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 8/20/02).

Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. Corrigan, to amend Ordaincne 135-02 by deleting in Section 1 “with the lowest and best bidder or as otherwise provided by law” and inserting, “as necessary to control West Nile Virus” and Section 2, deleting “the contracts for supplies, services and equipment in excess of $7,500 for professional services in excess of $5,000 shall be awarded except as approved herein or further approved by resolution of Council” and insert; “Council hereby determines that these contracts are necessary to meet the emergency arising in connection with the operation and maintenance of the City Department or agency or that it is either impractical to award the contract under competitive bidding procedure or cost effective and it is in the best interest of the City to award the contracts without competitive bidding”.

Yeas: Corrigan, Dunn, FitzGerald, Roth, Seelie
Nay: Skindell
Motion adopted.

Motion by Mr. Seelie, seconded by Mr. Corrigan to adopt Ordinance 135-02 as amended.

Mr. Skindell said he wanted to not for the record that the ordinances were be passed in accordance with three readings according to the Charter.

Yeas: Corrigan, Dunn, FitzGerald, Roth, Seelie
Nay: Skindell
Motion adopted. Ordinance No. 135-02 adopted.

Meeting adjourned 7:45 PM.?


Approved:___________________________ ____________________
PRESIDENT

____________________
CLERK

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posted 09-05-2003 10:52 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
To: All Members and Guests

Over the past several weeks I have posted information that to some has been a rerun of information that has been archived somewhere on this website or buried somewhere on the Internet.
In either case I find it easier to compile and cut and paste information from whatever source I can find, publicly that will hopefully encourage many to seek further and learn.

Chemtrails Central has gained some attention in some circles within the high walls of the system and with some curious interest. The fact that I have diverted my attention to post information and respond to some others here has alarmed some, amused some, and encouraged some.

In all I have stepped forward to assist not the ones that are selling products, books, and quick fix remedies to make a buck off of other peoples miseries or concerns, is their business. I am not selling books or asking for funds to receive a pamphlet on how to stay out of the rain!

I really wish to help those of you who really wish help in some way.

Now let me get to the point of this message!

The information that I have access to and my own personal lab notes and hardware are not in the public domain and for good reason. Some speculators, debunkers, instigators, profiteers and extremists would muddle up the pond with disinformation and other not so nice information. Then there would be others that would use this information to build a HAARP unit and control the weather from afar or even use it as a weapon against or for the United States. If a terrorist group gained access to the vital components listed on this website and the individuals involved, maybe they would kidnap or murder the ones exposed or even build a system with the information posted here and use it to destroy its enemies.
So the question! Do you really want the truth to be exposed here for all to see and duplicate? Do you wish for the families of the ones responsible to suffer the fate of the ones exposed? Do you wish for a terrorist group to stand by and wait for vital confidential information to be posted on a project that can destroy worlds?

We are at war with nations and those nations scan the Internet for information that can be used to counterstrike its foe.

Others will use the hard evidence you seek against you all. Most likely they would destroy your space. So, Please ask yourselves and way the risk for truth and remember if some other country that is in disfavor with the USA gains access to this technology that was posted on this website you most likely will not be protected and you just cannot turn off your computer in hopes that it will go away, and you will not be able to hide!
This time in history I will let the people decide!




[Edited 1 times, lastly by gaiacomm on 09-05-2003]

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halva
Senior Member

Greece
475 posts, Dec 2002

posted 09-05-2003 02:41 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for halva   Email halva   Visit halva's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Gaiacomm you are still spamming on two threads for no good reason.

I don't believe you when you say you will allow your decision to release this information, if you have any such information, be influenced by anything that is said here.

As for the theoretical and practical issue at stake, I have educated myself on it in relation to nuclear weapons, and on the basis of that my position is that there is only one thing worse than a state armed with weapons of mass destruction and that is two states armed with weapons of mass destruction.

It took until the signing of the ABM Treaty, more than twenty years after the start of the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, for the US to get the Soviets to consent THEORETICALLY to the doctrine of nuclear deterrence, and they consented only under the threat of blackmail: the blackmail of an arms race in so-called defensive anti-missile systems. To obvert that threat they signed the ABM Treaty, capitulating to Western ideologies of nuclear deterrence.

Theories of nuclear deterrence were the forerunners of the scenarios which now fuel the "war against terrorism".

The assumption is that the world is full of potential terrorists and would-be terrorists only deterred by the terrorism of the United States and/or technical incapacity from embarking on a similar career of terror.

How true is this assumption?

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, when a black market in nuclear materials opened for business, as I understand it the only customers were Western intelligence agencies seeking to carry out "sting operations". German intelligence got to work on one such operation to get Chancellor Kohl re-elected in the mid-nineties.

I think it is a reasonable assumption that all terrorist "opponents" of the United States are directly or indirectly in the employ of the United States, are mercenaries of some other kind or are serving some electoralist strategy like these Bundesnachrichtendienst sting merchants.

Even if this is an exaggeration, the answer to the question of whether one wishes for a proliferation of nuclear technology, HAARP technology, or any other WMD technology to enemies of the United States, the answer is no.

What one would like to see would be a movement of peoples in other countries calling for their own states to renounce all weapons of mass destruction. Americans can do the same if they like, but if they want instead of doing that to declare independence from the United Nations, as Councillor Al Snow and his friends wish, then that should be acceptable too.

American WMD haters and UN haters can argue these issues out between themselves. Foreigners should not get involved in internal American WMD politics any more than they should get involved in the arguments of the American pro-gun and anti-gun lobbies.

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-05-2003 03:43 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Halva:

I won't debate with you only because it will go nowhere!
Nuclear weapons are obselete and are only used as a pawn in the geopolitical arena. There are other exotic weapons that are more potent and destrutive than you can imagine!
There are two types of weapons: Weapons of mass destruction and Weapons of mass distraction!

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halva
Senior Member

Greece
475 posts, Dec 2002

posted 09-05-2003 03:51 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for halva   Email halva   Visit halva's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Yesterday's weapons of mass destruction are today's weapons of mass distraction.

Today's weapons of mass destruction are today's weapons of mass distraction.

I am beginning to suspect that what is motivating you is no more interesting than what motivated Tony Blair to reduce a Labour Party Conference to awed silence by gloating over his powers over "the button".

I am one of the holders of the button that determines whether you stay on this forum.

What do we have to gain by keeping you here?
Answer dispassionately if you can.

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suckingeggs
Senior Member



281 posts, Mar 2003

posted 09-05-2003 04:36 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for suckingeggs   Visit suckingeggs's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
quote:
Originally posted by gaiacomm:
Halva:

There are other exotic weapons that are more potent and destrutive than you can imagine!
distraction!


This is the meat on the bones, this is what you have promised from the start and although you have gone all around the houses to educate others who have not done the leg work (your choice) are we at the point where we started.

IF you have it?...It is time to wake the sheeple up Dr.



[Edited 1 times, lastly by suckingeggs on 09-05-2003]

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gaiacomm
Senior Member


Los Angeles, California, USA
272 posts, Aug 2003

posted 09-05-2003 05:35 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for gaiacomm   Email gaiacomm   Visit gaiacomm's Homepage!   Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
You should post it all and not just a piece!
This is what leads to mis-information and mis-understanding.

Halva:
I won't debate with you only because it will go nowhere!
Nuclear weapons are obselete and are only used as a pawn in the geopolitical arena. There are other exotic weapons that are more potent and destrutive than you can imagine!
There are two types of weapons: Weapons of mass destruction and Weapons of mass distraction!



[Edited 1 times, lastly by gaiacomm on 09-05-2003]

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